practice exams

  1. easiest & most common way to gather information about people’s personalities
    • asking people to fill out self report inventories
    • administering projective tests, observing people’s behavior, & using brain scans are all time consuming and, while they help gather information about personality, they are not the easiest or most common ways
    • dream analysis & free association are not used for personality, they are used to access unconscious thoughts
  2. continuous reinforcement
    rat gets a treat every time he pushes a button
  3. fixed ratio
    every 5 times a dog sits, he gets a treat
  4. fixed intreval
    weekly paycheck is reinforcement for 7 days (consistent time)
  5. negative reinforcement
    babies stop crying when picked up to teach their parents to hold them a lot
  6. positive punishment
    you have to do 3 extra hours of homework
  7. negative punishment
    you can't have your phone
  8. overgeneralization
    the cat runed, the bus goed
  9. wundt
    structructuralism & introspection
  10. which personality theory underestimates the importance of the environment
  11. standardization sample
    exam questions are pretested to insure they are reliably measuring what they are intended to measure
  12. somatic symptom disorder
    extreme focus on physical symptoms cause emotional distress & problems functioning
  13. conversion disorder
    a person has blindness, paralysis, or any other nervous sysytem symptm that can't be explained by medical evaluation
  14. ECT
    giving a patient with depression shocks while they are under anasthesia (only if all other treatments have failed)
  15. achievement motivation
    Dwight works at Dunder Mifflin & frequently volunteers to come early or stay late & prides himself on being a good worker
  16. mental set
  17. functional fixedness
    part of gestalt, limits a person to using an item only for it's intended purpose, limits creativity
  18. proactive interface
    previously learned stuff gets in the way of learning new stuff
  19. belief bias
    judge an argument on the conclusion rather than supporting evidence
  20. framing
    compared to $10, $30 seems like a lot. compared to $50, $30 seems like less.
  21. motion parallax
    closer objects move faster, further objects move slower
  22. stroboscopic motion
    flip book
  23. phi phenomenon
    "moving" christmas lights
  24. accomodation (vision)
    focus image on retina
  25. if you stare at a red & orange shape then immediatley after look at a blank piece of paper, you will see...
    a green & blue shape (the opposite color)
  26. Tolman
    showed latent learning (occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behavior or associations that are learned) with a rat maze where the rats performance improved significantly after a reward was introduced
  27. where is memory stored
    lots of places
  28. moro reflex
    elicited by a sudden noise or touch
  29. babinski reflex
    foot (babies)
  30. plantar reflex
    foot (adult)
  31. rooting reflex
    babies turn face towards touch on cheek
  32. reaction formation
    i say that i love arya even though i hate her
  33. displacement
    im mad at arya but i yell at billiebob
  34. projection
    i justify hating arya by saying that she hates me
  35. sublimation
    regina george takes out her anger through lacrosse
  36. intellectualization
    someone who is terminally ill does lots of research about their illness
  37. main advantage of group therapy
    reduces financial burden
  38. behaviorist therapy
    seeks to identify and help change potentially self-destructive or unhealthy behaviors. It functions on the idea that all behaviors are learned and that unhealthy behaviors can be changed
  39. psychodynamic therapy
    Freud, free association, dream analysis
  40. sociocultural therapy
    looks at your environment
  41. humanistic therapy
    self esteem & uncondition positive regard
  42. somatic therapy
    relationship between body & mind
  43. howard gardner & multiple intelligence
    • linguistic: words
    • logical-mathematical: numbers & reasoning
    • spatial: picture
    • bodily kinesthetic: body 
    • musical: music
    • interpersonal: people smart
    • intrapersonal: self smart
    • naturalist: nature
  44. big 5 model
    openess, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
  45. drinking alcohol while pregnant...
    increases chances of mental retardation
  46. declarative memory
    i can tell you about the time i went to the beach and met katy perry
  47. semantic memory
    common knowledge (names of colors, capitals of states)
  48. implicit memory
    remembering the words to a song and finishing a line of a song when someone sings the first two words
  49. eidetic memory
    photographic memory
  50. as Mobu walked to his class, he passed many people in the hallway. what they were wearing that day would be briefly in his...
    iconic (short term/snapshot) memory
  51. echoic memory
    sounds (easier to remember)
  52. procedural memory
    how to walk or how to ride a bike
  53. james lange theory
    billiebob watches friends, he laughs, he feels happy
  54. a kitten learns to chase birds by copying his mother
    observational learning
  55. Melissa learned to dig for earthworms only after it rains
    discrimination, able to tell the differences between stimuli
  56. the mean, median, & mode are equal
    normal distribution
  57. when a neuron initially depolarizes...
    Na+ ions flow into the cell
  58. tricyclic antidepressant
    seratonin reuptake inhibitor
  59. thorazine
    antipsychotic for schizophrenia
  60. haldol
    antipsychotic for schizophrenia & tourrettes
  61. lithium
    bipolar disorder
  62. valium
  63. mean us higher than median
    positively skewed distribution
  64. most involved in electric part of neural transmissions
    myelin: fatty tissue that surrounds axons and helps speed up action potential (electric charge) down the neuron
  65. neurotransmitters
    chemicals stored in terminal buttons & released into synapse
  66. phonemes
    smallest units of sound in a language
  67. morphemes
    smallest units with meaning
  68. homophones
    single words to express complex ideas (doggy! = there is a dog)
  69. when first born, humans dominant sense is
    hearing (becomes sight after 6 months)
  70. nearly constant low level arousal of autonomic nervous system
  71. which perspective was most popular at the turn of the 20th century in europe
  72. light enters the eye through the
  73. according to humanism, psychological disorders are caused by
    unfilfilled needs
  74. antonia has a cat, the first time she sees a rabbit she calls it a cat, her mistake is due to
  75. somatic nervous system is part of
    peripheral nervous system
  76. what provides information about how spread out a distribution is
  77. because jake is late to basketball practice, coach peterson makes him sit out for the first quarter of the next game. jake is on time for the rest of the season. coach peterson has used
    omission training
  78. the brainstem is comprised of
    hindbrain & midbrain
  79. overjustification effect
    expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person's intrinsic motivation
  80. to prove a psychological theory
    it is impossible to prove a theory
  81. billiebob gives out cookies that say "vote for billiebob" on them as a part of his campaign for president. he is using the
    mere exposure effect
  82. eli is just beginning to sit up. how old is he?
    6 months
  83. what number tells you if there is a significan different between group 1 & group 2's scores
    p value
  84. what part of the brain was thought to play the most important role in the canon bard theory of emotion
  85. what color is the shortest electromagnetic waves humans can see
  86. people who are able to be hypnotized easily are likely to score high on which of the big five personality traits
  87. kholers studies with apes demonstrate
    learning can occur via insight
  88. which model of personality is the least deterministic
  89. if vance is psychotic, what medication would he benefit from
    neuroleptics (tranquilizers used to manage psychosis, including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought)
  90. sperlings partial report technique was designed to test
    capacity of sensory memory
  91. cyrus takes a nap, an hour later, his dad wakes him up. cyrus feels worse than when he went to bed and can hardly get up. an EEG of cyrus before he woke up would most likely have shown a prepondderance of
    delta waves
  92. en route to the brain, information from the two eyes retinas crosses at the
    lateral geniculate nucleus
  93. a lesson from Janis's research on groupthink is that
    it is important for people to voice dissent
  94. information from the optic nerve is initially processed in the
  95. which theory of emotion are cognitive psychologists likely to support
    two factor theory: emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive label
  96. what part of phineas gage's brain was damaged by his accident
    prefrontal cortex
  97. __% of participants in Milgrim's obedience experiments thought they delivered the maximum amount of shock possible
  98. biological approach
    genetics, close relatives, body functions
  99. evolutionary approach
    how to survive
  100. psychodynamic approach
    freud, subconscious, repressed feelings, unfilfilled wishes
  101. behavioral approach
    learning (classical & operant) observed
  102. cognitive approach
    thinking affects behavior
  103. humanistic approach
    becoming a better human, behavior, acceptance
  104. socio-cultural approach
    culture, family, approach
  105. why are experiments important
    • hindsight bias: i knew it all along!
    • overconfidence: a person's subjective confidence in his or her judgements is reliably greater than the objective accuracy of those judgements
  106. types of research methods
    descriptive, correlational, experimental
  107. descriptive methods
    case study, survery, naturalistic observation * don't show cause & effect
  108. case study
    studies one person in depth, may not be typical of population (ex: genie)
  109. survey
    studies lots of people but not in depth
  110. naturalistic observation
    observe & write facts without interfering with the situation
  111. correlational method
    shows relation, but not cause & effect, scatterplots show research
  112. correlation coefficent
    • +1: both increase
    • 0: no correlation
    • -1: one increases, the other decreases
  113. experimental method
    shows cause and effect
  114. population
    type of people who are going to be used in an experiment
  115. sample
    actual people who will be experimented on
  116. random assignment
    chance selection between experimental & control groups
  117. confounding variable
    can effect dependant variable beyond control of the experiment
  118. scientific method
    theory -> hypothesis -> operational definition -> revision
  119. theory
    general idea being tested, cannot be proven
  120. hypothesis
  121. operational definition
    procedures that explain components
  122. mode
    number that appears the most
  123. mean
  124. standard deviation
    how scores vary from the mean
  125. central tendency
    single score that represents the whole
  126. __% of results fall within 1 value of the mean
  127. __% of results fall within 2 values of the mean
  128. __% of results fall within 3 values of the mean
  129. ethics of testing on humans
    consent, debriefing, no unnecessary discomfort or pain, confidentiality
  130. sensory neurons
    sensory receptors -> brain
  131. motor neurons
    brain -> spinal cord & muscles
  132. interneurons
    in brain & spinal cord, connect motor & sensory neurons
  133. dendrites
    recieve messages
  134. myelin sheath
    protects axon
  135. axon
    where charges travel from cell body to axon terminal
  136. neurotransmitters
    chemical messengers
  137. reuptake
    extra neurotransmitters taken back
  138. excitatory charge
    do it
  139. inhibitory charge
    dont do it
  140. central nervous system
    brain & spinal cord
  141. peripheral nervous system
    somatic & autonomic nervious systems
  142. somatic nervous system
    voluntary movements
  143. autonomic nervous system
    involuntary movements, sympathetic & parasympatheric nervous systems
  144. sympathetic nervous system
  145. parasympathetic nervous system
  146. neural networks
    greater use = more connections, others fall away if not used
Card Set
practice exams
barrons 8th edition