Anthropology Exam #3

  1. Which term best describes a group not based on age, kinship, marriage, territory, or rank?










    G. common-interest association.
  2. Which term best describes a society in which the number of valued positions is equal to the number of people capable of filling them?
    Select one:









    H. egalitarian society.
  3. Which term best describes a set of families and individuals who enjoy nearly equal prestige?
    Select one:









    H. social class.
  4. Which term best describes a kind of social class in which membership is determined at birth and remains fixed for life?
    Select one:









    A. caste.
  5. Which term best describes a category of people based on age?
    Select one:









    J. age grade.
  6. Which term best describes a group of people initiated into an age grade at the same time?
    Select one:









    I.  age set.
  7. Which term permits a great deal of social mobility?
    Select one:









    E. open-class society.
  8. Which term best describes the ability to change one's class position?
    Select one:









    I. mobility.
  9. Which term best describes division of society into groups with unequal sharing of resources, prestige and influence?
    Select one:









    I. stratified society.
  10. Which term best describes what people say about others in their own society?
    Select one:









    J. verbal evaluation.
  11. Which term best describes an activity or possession indicative of a given social class?
    Select one:









    H. symbolic indicator.
  12. Of the following groups, the one that is based on an age grade is the:
    Select one:



    A. warriors of the Tiriki.
  13. The general purpose of age groupings is best described as a means of:
    Select one:



    D. identifying a number of life stages.
  14. An age set is best defined as:
    Select one:



    A. a group of people, based on age, who move through a series of stages together for much of their lives.
  15. Common-interest associations are found in:
    Select one:



    C. all of the above.
  16. Of the following groups, the one that requires a deliberate act of joining, though not necessarily voluntary is:
    Select one:



    B. common-interest association.
  17. The major purpose of associations formed in rapidly changing and newly urbanized societies is usually:
    Select one:



    A. adapting to new conditions.
  18. The term stratified society refers to:
    Select one:



    B. ranking of classes based on wealth, power and prestige.
  19. In a stratified society:
    Select one:



    A. various groups do not share equally in the basic resources that support life, influence and prestige.
  20. In an egalitarian society:
    Select one:



    C. an individual's position in society depends mostly on his or her own abilities.
  21. The classic example of a system of social caste is found in:

    Select one:



    C.  India.
  22. Social mobility refers to the:
    Select one:



    B. possibility of changing one's social class membership.
  23. Of the following factors, the one that may adversely affect mobility is:
    Select one:



    C.  an extended family organization.
  24. Which system is found in societies with larger populations and surplus of production?
    Select one:








    C.  centralized political systems.
  25. Which term best describes a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under one person?
    Select one:








    H.  chiefdom.
  26. Which term best describes a system which is found in societies with larger populations and a surplus of production?
    Select one:









    E. segmentary lineage system.
    F. age-grade organization.
    G. band.
    H. tribe.
    I. centralized political systems.
    E.  centralized political systems.
  27. Which term describes a political organization that cuts across territorial and kin groupings?
    Select one:








    G.  age-grade organization.
  28. Which term best describes support for the political system based on important values of the society?
    Select one:








    D.  legitimacy.
  29. Which term best describes a form of political organization in which a larger group is divided into clans and then into lineages?
    Select one:








    D.  segmentary lineage system.
  30. Which term best describes a centralized system that has the power to coerce?
    Select one:








    D.  state.
  31. Which term best describes a group of bands or villages integrated by several unifying factors, including language and culture?
    Select one:








    A.  tribe.
  32. Which term best describes a small, autonomous group of related people occupying a single region?
    Select one:








    D. band.
  33. Which term best describes a form of externalized control that discourages certain behaviors?
    Select one:









    D.  negative sanctions.
  34. Which term best describes beliefs so strongly held that the individual controls his or her own conduct?
    Select one:









    D. internalized controls.
  35. Which term best describes an external sanction that requires the threat or application of physical force by an individual or organization having the socially recognized privilege of so acting?
    Select one:









    I.  law.
  36. Which term best describes the concept that nature exists only to be used by humans?
    Select one:









    A.  exploitative worldview.
  37. Which term best describes the methods employed to ensure acceptable behavior by members of a society?
    Select one:









    J. social control.
  38. Which term best describes a wrongful act or injury of an individual?
    Select one:









    I.  tort.
  39. Which term best describes a system which requires a third party who has the power to render decisions?
    Select one:









    B.  adjudication.
  40. Which term best describes a concept based on respect for and dependence on nature?
    Select one:









    H.  naturalistic worldview.
  41. Which term best describes a system which requires a third party, who does not have power to enforce decisions?
    Select one:









    I. mediation.
  42. Which term best describes controls designed to regulate behavior precisely and explicitly?
    Select one:









    G.  formal sanctions.
  43. Political organizations are found in:
    Select one:



    C. all of the above groups.
  44. The fundamental means by which societies maintain public order is by:
    Select one:



    B. political organization.
  45. Of the following terms, the one that is used by anthropologists to describe one kind of political system is:
    Select one:



    C. tribe.
  46. The band represents:
    Select one:



    A. probably the oldest form of political organization.
  47. In a chiefdom:
    Select one:



    B. the leaders are considered one class, the rest of the population another class.
  48. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the state pattern of political organization?
    Select one:



    A. tendency toward egalitarianism.
  49. The concept of legitimacy is an important aspect of:
    Select one:



    D. support for the political system.
  50. Religion is used to legitimize political structures and leadership:
    Select one:



    C. in a wide range of societies.
  51. One of the most important basic functions of a political system is to:
    Select one:



    A. ensure that people behave in certain ways.
  52. The definition of law included in the textbook includes:
    Select one:



    C. the threat or use of physical force.
  53. A basic function of law includes all of the following EXCEPT:

    Select one:



    A.  protecting land or territory from misappropriation.
  54. The term crime has different meaning in Western and non-Western societies because:
    Select one:



    D. in many non-Western societies, all offenses are considered to be against individuals.
  55. The assumption basic to the concept of trial by ordeal is that:
    Select one:



    A. supernatural forces will protect the innocent and punish the guilty.
  56. The assumption basic to the concept of trial by ordeal is that:
    Select one:



    D. supernatural forces will protect the innocent and punish the guilty.
  57. One of the differences between food foragers and agricultural or pastoral peoples that may account for different attitudes of these groups toward warfare is the:
    Select one:



    C. commitment to specific areas of land.
  58. The worldview of farming and pastoral societies tends to be:
    Select one:



    C. exploitative.
  59. A naturalistic worldview is best summed up as a:
    Select one:



    A. tendency to live in close harmony with nature.
  60. Internalized controls are best defined as:
    Select one:



    C. values and beliefs that the individual subscribes to in his or her own mind.
  61. To maintain social order, the Amish of Pennsylvania mostly rely on:
    Select one:



    C. internal controls and informal sanctions.
  62. Sanction is best defined as:
    Select one:



    B. an externalized social control.
  63. A formal sanction is always:
    Select one:



    B. organized.
  64. Approval of a marriage arrangement by neighbors would be classified as a:
    Select one:



    A. positive informal sanction.
  65. Viewing societies as a whole, it has been found that women reach high positions of political leadership:
    Select one:



    D.  rarely.
  66. In a large number of traditional societies, women's influence on social control is:
    Select one:



    D. equal to men's.
  67. Which term best describes the belief that spirit beings animate nature?
    Select one:









    C. animism.
  68. Which term best describes rituals marking important stages in the life of an individual?
    Select one:









    E.  rites of passage.
  69. Which term best describes a collection of the gods and goddesses of a people?
    Select one:









    H.  pantheon.
  70. Which term best describes any form of manipulation of supernatural beings and powers?
    Select one:









    J.  religion.
  71. Which term best describes the procedure for determining the cause of an event or predicting the future?
    Select one:









    F.  divination.
  72. Which term best describes the use of specified rituals and formulas to compel supernatural forces to behave in desired ways?
    Select one:









    D.  magic.
  73. Which term best describes one who develops special religious powers through his or her own initiative?
    Select one:









    C.  shaman.
  74. Which term best describes an entity which is believed to display many of the traits of living humans?
    Select one:









    E.  ancestral spirits.
  75. Which term best describes a belief that some persons have an innate psychic power to cause harm?
    Select one:









    D.  witchcraft.
  76. Which term best describes a means through which an individual relates to the supernatural?
    Select one:









    E.  ritual.
  77. Which term best describes rituals marking crises in the life of the group?
    Select one:









    B.  rites of intensification.
  78. According to anthropological definition religion always involves:
    Select one:



    B.  rituals to mobilize supernatural forces to achieve or prevent transformations.
  79. Comparison of religious activity in most Western societies with that in most food-foraging societies shows that:
    Select one:



    C. food-foraging societies are more likely to include religious activity in their daily routine.
  80. Because religion fulfills many social and psychological needs, some form of religion has been found in all:
    Select one:



    D.  societies.
  81. Supernatural beings, often with humanlike qualities, who seem rather remote yet control the universe and take an interest in human affairs are called:
    Select one:



    B.  gods and goddesses.
  82. Whether groups worship gods or goddesses or both depends mostly upon:
    Select one:



    C. how men and women relate to each other in the society.
  83. Animism refers to belief in:
    Select one:



    C. spirit beings that live in natural objects.
  84. Mana is a name given to:
    Select one:




    D. an imprsonal abstract force and is an example of animatism.
  85. Archaeology is best defined as the study of:
    Select one:



    A. material remains.
  86. Shamans gain their powers through:
    Select one:



    D. individual effort and perform services on behalf of human clients.
  87. Religious rituals function generally as a means of:
    Select one:



    A. enabling people to relate to the supernatural.
  88. A ceremony marking a crucial point in the life of an individual is called a rite of:
    Select one:



    D.  passage.
  89. Marriage is classified as a rite of:
    Select one:



    D.  passage.
  90. From the viewpoint of anthropology, magic is the:
    Select one:



    C. use of specific formulas to compel supernatural forces to act in certain ways.
  91. Divination is defined, in part, as:
    Select one:



    A. determination of the cause of an event by magical means.
  92. According to the textbook, the psychological functions of religion include all of the following EXCEPT:
    Select one:



    A. validating the political and social organization of a culture.
  93. According to the textbook, the social functions of religion include all of the following EXCEPT:
    Select one:



    C.  providing an outlet for unstable personalities.
  94. A deliberate effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture results in:
    Select one:



    C.  revitalization movements.
  95. Which term best describes scale systems and their modifications?
    Select one:









    D.  tonality.
  96. Which term best describes a long oral narrative that recounts the life of a real or legendary person?

    Select one:








    E.  epic.
  97. Which term best describes a study of verbal art forms?
    Select one:









    A. folkloristics.
  98. Which term best describes a story situation in a folk tale?
    Select one:









    C.  motif.
  99. Which term best describes beings "seen" in the deepest stage of a trance?
    Select one:









    H.  iconic images.
  100. Which term best describes a sacred narrative explaining how the world came to be?
    Select one:









    J.  myth.
  101. Which term best describes a creative, fictional narrative?
    Select one:









    A.  tale.
  102. Which term best describes traditional oral stories and sayings?
    Select one:









    I.  folklore.
  103. Which term best describes a story told as true, set in the postcreation world?
    Select one:









    A.  legend.
  104. Which term best describes the study of a society's music in relation to its cultural setting?
    Select one:









    C.  ethnomusicology.
  105. The principal reason anthropologists study a culture's arts is that the arts:
    Select one:



    B. reflect the values and concerns of the people who create them.
  106. Art always includes an aspect of:
    Select one:



    A. symbolic communication.
  107. The textbook says that art contributes to:
    Select one:



    B. interpretation, expression and enjoyment of life.
  108. Artistic expression has been found by anthropologists:
    Select one:



    A. in some form in all human societies.
  109. In the textbook, Haviland tentatively suggest that art is universal because art:
    Select one:



    C. is a necessary kind of social behavior.
  110. A true myth is basically a:
    Select one:



    C. sacred narrative explaining how the world came to be in its present form.
  111. In nonliterate societies, legends serve a function that, in Western societies, has been taken over by the formal study of:
    Select one:



    D.  history
  112. An epic can be described as a:
    Select one:



    C.  long semihistorical narrative.
  113. A verbal art form recognized as fiction but conveying a moral or practical advice is:
    Select one:



    B.  a tale.
  114. example of a social function of music shown in the video program was:
    Select one:



    A. Tex-Mex music.
  115. Select one:



    A. a repertory of tones at regular intervals.
  116. As a type of symbolic expression, pictorial art can be described as ranging from:
    Select one:



    C. representational to abstract.
  117. Which term best describes a division of a single traditional role into two more roles, each with a single function:
    Select one:









    F. structural differentiation.
  118. Which term best describes a revitalization movement from within, directed primarily at the ideological system and social structure?
    Select one:









    I. revolutionary.
  119. Which term best describes the spread of customs or practices from one culture to another?
    Select one:









    G.  diffusion.
  120. What term best describes the blending of indigenous and foreign traits to form a new system?
    Select one:









    H. syncretism.
  121. Which term best describes a chance discovery of a new principle?
    Select one:









    D.  primary innovation.
  122. Which term best describes major culture changes that people are forced to make and that result from intensive contract between societies?
    Select one:









    D. acculturation.
  123. Which term best describes cultural elements that oppose forces for differentiation?
    Select one:









    J.  integrative mechanism.
  124. Which term best describes a deliberate attempt to construct a more satisfactory culture by rapid acceptance of multiple innovations?
    Select one:









    F. revitalization movement.
  125. Which term best describes a change in which a practice, skill, or belief ceases, with or without replacement?
    Select one:









    J. cultural loss.
  126. Which term best describes something new that comes from the deliberate application of known principles?
    Select one:









    F.  secondary innovation.
  127. Which term best describes extermination of one people by another?
    Select one:









    G.  genocide.
  128. Which term best describes the use of anthropology to solve practical problems, often for a specific client?
    Select one:









    D.  applied anthropology.
  129. Which term best describes the process by which traditional or developing societies acquire characteristics of Western industrialization societies?
    Select one:









    C.  modernization.
  130. Significant changes in culture may result from:
    Select one:
    A. forced or selective contact with other cultures.
    B. all of the above.
    D. accidents.
    B. all of the above.
  131. Left to itself, a society's cultural pattern will usually:
    Select one:



    A. change gradually, consistent with its basic pattern.
  132. A new practice, tool, or principle that becomes widely accepted within a group is called:
    Select one:



    A. an innovation.
  133. Pottery manufacturing with fired clay is considered a primary innovation because it:
    Select one:
    A. involved application of known techniques to new uses.
    B. involved the chance discovery of new principles.
    C. was discovered by more than one culture.
    D. caused formation of a substantially new culture.
    involved the chance discovery of new principles.
  134. Diffusion can be described as basically:
    Select one:



    B. voluntary and selective.
  135. In the process of diffusion an innovation is usually:
    Select one:



    D. modified to fit into the borrowing culture.
  136. Adoption of a different practice or technology may lead to a culture loss because:
    Select one:



    D. the former practice may be forgotten through disuse.
  137. Acculturation is characterized by:
    Select one:



    A. threat of force and massive change.
  138. Systematic efforts that result in extermination of one people by another is termed:
    Select one:



    C. genocide.
  139. Applied anthropology most frequently involves:
    Select one:



    B. assistance for a group that wants to impose changes on another group.
  140. A situation that may lead to rebellion and revolution is:
    Select one:



    B. loss of prestige by an established authority.
  141. All of the following groups are examples of revitalization movements EXCEPT:

    Select one:



    B. Branch Davidians.
  142. Syncretism is best defined as:
    Select one:



    C. blending of indigenous and foreign traits.
  143. The term modernization reflects the belief that:
    Select one:



    D. Western industrial societies are superior to traditional societies.
  144. A tendence toward a global culture is seen in the present-day:
    Select one:



    C. widespread adoption of the practices of Western societies.
  145. The union of smaller units into larger political and social units on a worldwide basis:
    Select one:



    B. now seems to be balanced by a tendency of large units to fragment.
  146. Anthropologists generally hold a strong belief in the:
    Select one:



    D. value of every human society.
Author
dolree
ID
346732
Card Set
Anthropology Exam #3
Description
Exam 3
Updated