Cognitive psych test 3

  1. Representations
    Knowledge about the world stored in the brain
  2. Thinking
    Manipulation of mental representations
  3. Representation types: Analogical
    • has characteristics of actual object 
    • Ex. looking at cello, maps, photos
  4. Representation types: Symbolic
    • Abstract, not physical features
    • Ex. words, numbers, ideas
  5. Concept
    The mental representation of a class of individual
  6. Category
    All possible examples of a particular concept

    Categorization helps us predict and understand the world
  7. Two models for category formation
    Prototype approach: there is one best example (prototype) to represent a category

    Exemplar approach: all members of the category contribute equally, and there is no one best example (no prototype)
  8. Priming
    Prototypical objects are more effected by priming 

    Presentation of 1 stimulus facilitates the response of another stimulus
  9. Meaning dominance
    The more frequently one definition is heard for an ambiguous word, the more dominance it has over other meanings for the same word

    Ex. thinking of jam as something you put on toast over a paper jam in a computer
  10. Balanced dominance
    The meanings of one word are relatively balanced and one is not more dominant/frequent over the other
  11. Homonyms
    Same pronounciation/spelling, different meaning
  12. Homophones
    Same pronunciation, different spelling and meanings
  13. Syntax
    The structure of a sentence
  14. Parsing
    How meaning in a sentence is created by breaking it down into sentences

    Ex. seeing a comma in a sentence creates a parsing so you know how to read it
  15. Garden path sentence
    When an ambiguity in a sentence leads you to the incorrect assumption 

    Ex. After the musician played the piano...

    becomes: After the musician played, the piano was wheeled off the stage
  16. Garden path model of parsing
    People use rules of thumb based on syntax to parse sentences as they unfold

    Dependent on how sentence is put together
  17. Constraint based approach to parsing
    There are things other than syntax that influence parsing:

    • Word meaning
    • Story context- knowing the story makes it easier to parse the sentence
    • Scene context- study, more eye movements with ambiguous instructions 
    • Memory load- the more memory something requires, the harder it is to keep things organized
  18. Inferences
    Using knowledge and reasoning to make conclusions about what is happening
  19. Types of inferences: anaphoric
    Connecting a person or object in two sentences
  20. Types of inference: Instrument
    About tools or methods
  21. Types of inference: causal
    About cause of a statement 

    Ex. If 2 things are together, they must have relation
  22. Situation models
    As you read/listen to something, you are recreating it in your mind 

    • Ex. People have faster reaction times to questions when they see an image that fits into their mental concept of a story
    • "Hammer nail into wall" --> faster reaction when picture shows horizontal nail
  23. Subgoals
    Breaking into smaller steps to achieve large goal 

    First step of problem solving
  24. Restructuring
    Representing a problem in a novel way
  25. Mental set
    Previous way of thinking that has been previously helpful

    Can also be harmful
  26. Functional fixedness
    Having a fixed idea about the function of objects
  27. Dunckers candle problem (Functional fixedness)
    • The way participants are presented the objects affects how they interpret the problem 
    • Ex. showing the tacks outside the box results in people figuring out the solution faster than if the tracks are in the box
  28. Sudden insight/ Maier's strings
    Apparent sudden understanding 

    When Maier brushed string to make it swing, participants would say that the solution came to them suddenly
  29. Given-new contract
    In every sentence, there is information that you previously know (given) and information that you are learning (new), to help you move forward
  30. Establishing common ground
    Mental knowledge and belief shared among conversational partners
  31. Entrainment
    Synchronization between two partners

    Ex. gestures, body position, speaking rate, tone, etc.
  32. Syntatic coordination
    Occurs when common ground is established

    Ex. partners will begin to use the same sentence structure, tone, etc. as the other
  33. Syntatic priming
    • Hearing a specific syntactic structure increases the likelihood of producing a sentence with the same structure
    • Contributes to syntactic coordination 

    Ex. study- 78% of the time participant copied syntactic structure of the confederate
  34. Decision making
    Selecting among options
  35. Problem solving
    Overcoming obstacles to achieve a goal
  36. Normative decision making
    • People select the choice that proceeds the largest gain
    • Assumes that everyone is rational
  37. Expected utility theory
    People make decisions by considering the possible alternative and choosing the most desirable one

    Violations- Red/white bean study, organ donor rate, gambling
  38. Descriptive decision making theory
    • People uses biases in decision making and may make irrational decisions
    • Based on decisions people actually make, not ideal ones
  39. Heuristics
    • Shortcuts, "rules of thumb" for decision making
    • Often unconscious
  40. Relative comparisons
    Anchoring-getting mentally stuck to the first thing you see/hear

    Framing-the way something is presented affects peoples perception of choices
  41. Availability heuristic
    People are most likely to make decision based on the first thing that comes to mind (most available)

    People believe what first comes to mind is more probable, but not always
  42. Representativeness heuristic
    Tendency to place a person, object or event into a category if they are similar to category prototype 

    Conjunction rule- the probability of two events (A&B) cannot be higher than the probability of a single constituent (ex: feminist librarians).

    Ignoring base rate- people will ignore actual base rates when they think something is more likely (Ex: lawyer/engineer problem) 

    Law of large numbers- the larger the sample, the more likely it is to represent the population
  43. Semantic Network model
    Hierarchal model, attempt to create a computer model of human memory
  44. Cognitive Economy
    • Storing shared features at the highest, most generic level possible 
    • Part of semantic network model

    Ex. Storing "can fly" at level of "bird," not at "canary"
  45. Semantic network model experiment findings
    • Predicted that the reaction time would depend on distance between two nodes 
    • Ex: Higher reaction time when the category was more broad than when more specific

    • Spreading activation, when category is activated it primes nearby nodes 
    • Ex: saying bird primes you to think of bird types

    Lexical decision task:

    Higher reaction time when there were no words associated with stimuli than when there were words associated
  46. Semantic model criticism
    Does not explain faster reaction times when identifying more prototypical members 

    • Sentence verification does not always follow hierarchical model 
    • Ex. higher reaction time for "pig is a mammal" than "pig is an animal"
  47. Conectionism
    Using computer models to represent cognitive processes

    Circles are neurons and lines are axons. The darker the line the more connection it has
  48. The sensory functional hypothesis
    • The ability to differentiate between a living thing and artifacts
    • Depends on memory system that distinguishes sensory attributes and a system that distinguishes functions

    Criticism: mahy patients with brain damage deficits do not fit this dichotomy so there must be more than 2 categories
  49. Multiple factor approach
    There are more than two factors when thinking of concepts

    Animals tend to be associated with sensory categories, while non-animals are associated with actions

    brain damage patients have issues with crowding --> some categories has more similar features than others

    Ex. boat and car not as similar as horse and cow
  50. The semantic category approach
    • There are specific neural circuits in the brain for specific categories that are innately determined
    • Ex. FFA dedicated to recognizing faces, PPA dedicated to recognizing places

    Experiment: Participants listened to stories for 2 hours, and when their neural activity was mapped in response to certain words they had similar maps across all subjects
  51. Embodied approach
    Our knowledge of concepts is based upon reactivation of sensory and motor processes that occur when interact with the object

    Semantic somatotopy- correspondence between words and actions in the brain 

    Criticism: damage affecting the motor action does not affect conceptual knowledge
  52. Language
    A system of communication using sounds and symbols
  53. Attributes of language
    Discreetness, grammar, productivity, displacement
  54. Confirmation bias
    Looking for information that proves your hypothesis, and ignoring information that refutes it
  55. Inductive reasoning
    Making a broad conclusion from a specific observation 

    Ex. Librarians are quiet, therefore anyone who is quiet must be a librarian
  56. Deductive reasoning
    • Able to prove it is true
    • Determining is conclusion is true based off statements
  57. Syllogisms: Valid vs true
    Valid; structure must be valid for conclusion to be valid 

    True: both premises must be true for conclusion to be true
  58. Morpheme
    Smallest meaningful unit of language
  59. Phoneme
    Individual speech sound
  60. Belief bias
    Tendency to believe syllogism is true because the conclusion sounds believable
  61. Mental models
    Representing specific situations in your mind to help you solve logic puzzles
  62. Conditional syllogisms
    Dependent on premise
  63. Falsification principle
    To test a rule, you must look for things that can prove the rule wrong
  64. Wason four card problem
    Each card has word on one side, number on the other. Which card will make the rule valid?

    Can only know your prediction is right when you flip the card over and see the other side
Card Set
Cognitive psych test 3
Cognitive psych test 3