
Electric force has an associated form of _______ energy, similar to gravitational force and spring force. If an object moves "with nature," then potential energy ________
 potential energy
 decreases

Define Work
A positive charge q is repelled by a stationary _______ source charges. A hand must push on the charge +q in order to move it closer to the _______ source charges.
The hand does work, transferring energy into the system of charges, ________ the system's energy (_____ _____ energy)
 Work the transfer of energy to or from a system by external forces that act on it as it undergoes displacement
 positive
 positive
 increasing
 electric potential energy U_{e}

 B. potential energy depends on position.
 For part 1, they are equidistant from the charge, so no change or high to high (0). For 2, we go from high to low, so . For 3. We go from low to high, so +, and for 4, we go from high to low, so 

Let's take a charge q = 10 nC and set U_{elec} = 0 at a point A. How do we find the potential energy at some other point B or C?
 We must measure the amount of work it takes to move the charge from point A to that other point

It takes the hand 4 μJ of work to move the charge q from point A to point B, thus, its electric potential energy at B is (U _{elect}) _{B} = _____. Similarly, (U _{elect}) _{C} = ____. Since Point C is closer to the sources than point B, the potential energy at point C should be ______ than at point B.

According to Coulomb's law, the electric force is proportional to the ______. Thus, a larger charge would require the hand to do _____ work.
In turn, the work is also proportional to the ______:
A charged particle's potential energy is _______ _______ to its charge
 charge
 more
 charge
 directly proportional

State the expression for the electric potential energy that any charge q would have if placed at some point B given the following ratios of electric potential to electric charges. Also state which part is associated with point B and which part depends on the charge we place at B
 Potential energy = (electric potential)(charge) or (U_{elec}) = Vq

Define Electric Potential (V) and state the equation
There is a relationship between electric potential and electric potential energy. The ______ ______ tells us how a source will exert a force on q; the electric potential tells us how the source charges would provide q with ______ ______.
The unit of potential energy is the ______ ____ _____ or the _____
 The electric potential V: the potential for creating an electric potential energy if a charge is placed at a given point
 U_{elec} = qV
 electric field
 potential energy
 joule per coulomb, or volt V:
 1 V = 1 J/C

In the electric field model, source charges alter the _____ around them, creating an ______ _______ field and a _____ field.
 space
 electric vector field
 scalar field

The scalar field is called the _______ _______
Define equi potential surfaces and explain how they would work in the diagram below
 electric potential
 Equi potential surface: any point on this surface will have the same potential value
 So here, from any 3 position to another 3 position, no energy is spent. However, from an 8 to 3 or vice versa, energy must be spent

For both Electric field vector and Electric Potential, state:
The formulas
What each tells us about source charges
Units
Type of Quantity (vector or scalar)
The potential has a value at _____ _____ in an electric field

For each statement below specify whether it speaks of electric potential (V) or potential energy (U_{e})
Chargefield system: Due to an interaction between the field and a charged particle placed in the field
Created by the source charges
Present whether or not a charged particle is there to experience it.
Interaction energy of a charged particle with the source charges
Field Characteristic: Independent of the charge
Chargefield system: Due to an interaction between the field and a charged particle placed in the field
Field characteristic: The difference in potential (ΔV) is proportional to the difference in potential energy (ΔU_{e})

C. It is independent of the charges +q and q. Hence, it will be same for both.

D. It must go to a lower potential, they didnt tell us the direction of the E field so we can't tell whether it goes to a strong electric field or a weaker electric field, we can't say A or B and E. is eliminated

The force on charge q is zero. No _____ is needed to move it from A to B. Charge q's electric potential energy remains _________ as it is moved from A to B:
(U_{e})_{B} = _____ → V_{B} = ____
The potential difference (state the formula) is ______
 work
 uncharged

How is a potential difference created? The hand must do work on ___ to push it from A to B. There must be an electric potential difference ΔV between A and B.
The capacitor still has no _____ _____ but charge has been ______ to give the plates charges +Q and Q
 A potential difference is created by separating positive charge from negative charge.
 +q
 net charge
 separated

B. with the plates, the E field is uniform, the positive charge will try to get the negative plate so the potential energy would be zero at the negative. It would take more energy to displace the hypothetical charge over to the positive end, hence electric potential increases and we go from negative toward positive
Keep in mind that potential energy will be related to work done

When you shuffle your feet across the carpet, you pick up charge from the floor. There is a ______ ______ between your body and, say, a nearby doorknob. The potential difference can be _______ or more, enough to create a spark as the excess charge moves from _______ to _______ potential
 potential difference
 10,000V
 higher to lower potential

Lightning is the result of large ______ ______ built up by ______ _______ within clouds due to collision between small ice particles
 potential differences
 charge separation

A common and important means of creating a fixed potential difference is the _______. Potential difference between two point is often called the _______. The potential difference between a battery's terminals as the ________ "across" the battery
 battery
 voltage
 voltage

The nerve and muscle cells, active processes create a potential difference across the _____ _______ of about 70 mV. The membrane potential is caused by an imbalance of _______ (___) and _______ (___) ions. A _____________ exchange pump continuously pumps Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell. During one pumping cycle, there is a net transfer of one positive charge out of the cell causing a _______ _______
 cell membrane
 potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) ions
 sodiumpotassium exchange pump
 charge separation

The potential at a given point depends on where we choose V to be _____, but the difference is _______ of any choices. The voltmeter is a instrument for measuring _______ _______, and always has two inputs
 zero
 independent
 potential difference

How can 120V of a household electric outlet produce a shock that is definitely painful and possibly fatal when the potential difference of 10,000 V when you scuff your feet on the carpet is not? (3story)
It is the quantity of charge transferred that determines the physiological effect of a shock.
The potential difference produced when you scuff your feet on the carpet is large, but the total amount of charge transferred when you touch a doorknob is quite small.
The voltage of electric outlets is much smaller, but the charge transferred can be much greater.

B. The charge difference will be the same potential, there should be an equi potential between those two positions. Point 1 is 3 (set to the max because of the +) and Point 2 is zero, because it comes from the negative (which we automatically set to the minimum: zero). So the difference between those two poles will be 3.

 Because they are different sizes, they can't have the same charge. They also can't have the same electric field:
 Electric field = Kq/r^{2} = potential/r
 The two metal spheres are connected by a metal wire (great conductor), so they will have the same potential, A.

Energy is conserved in an isolated charged system. State the formula for:
W (2)
ΔK (4)
Positive particle speeds up (___ > ___) → ____ > ____, i.e. it moves from ______ to ______ potential and vice versa. This situation is reversed for a ______ charge. A negative charge speeds up if it moves into a region of ______ potential

 (K_{f} > K_{i}) → V_{i} > V_{f}
 higher to lower potential
 negative charge
 higher potential

The dashed green lines are lines of constant ______ ______. The potential is 500 V at ______ points on this line. A doubleheaded green arrow is used to represent the ______ ______
A positive charge speeds up (ΔK __ 0) as it moves from ______ to ______ potential (ΔV ___ 0). ______ _____ energy is transformed into ______ energy.
A positive charge slows down (ΔK ___ 0) as it moves from ______ to ______ potential (ΔV ___ 0). ______ energy is transformed into ______ ______ energy
 electric potential
 all points
 potential difference
 ΔK > 0
 higher to lower potential (ΔV < 0)
 Electric potential energy
 kinetic energy
 ΔK < 0
 lower to higher potential (ΔV > 0)
 Kinetic energy
 electric potential energy

Problem Solving Strategy Conservation of energy in charge interactions
(5story)

Electric energy can be transformed into other types of energy in addition to kinetic energy. When a battery is connected to a light bulb, their electric potential energy is transformed into _______ ______ (__), making the bulb hot enough to glow brightly. State the formula for this energy transformation
 thermal energy (E_{th})
 ΔE_{th} = qΔV

E. The direction of electric field in the given figure is directed downwards because electric from positive potential to negative potential. Thus, the potential energy of the proton decreases in downward direction, and kinetic energy increases in downward direction. Therefore, proton moves downward with increasing speed.


Another unit of energy that is commonly used in atomic and nuclear physics is the electronvolt.
Define One electronvolt and state the value/conversion to CV and J
You must convert this energy to ____ before doing most calculations
 One electronvolt: the energy a chargefield system gains or loses when a charge of magnitude e is moved through a potential difference of 1 volt
 1 eV = 1.60*10^{19} C⋅V = 1.60*10^{19} J
 Joules (J)

