ch 18

  1. what are compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms
    isomers
  2. representations that show bonding relationships of atoms
    structural formulas
  3. term that describes various arrangements of atoms and bonds that give distinct physical and chemical properties to molecules in which they are found
    functional groups
  4. what structural feature distinguishes aromatic hydrocarbons form cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons
    delocalized electrons
  5. contains only single carbon-carbon bonds and cannot hold additional atoms without breaking the chain
    saturated hydrocarbon (includes alkanes)
  6. contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds and may accommodate additional atoms without breaking the chain
    unsaturated hydrocarbon (includes alkenes, alkynes)
  7. a molecular fragment derived by removing a hydrogen atom form an alkane
    alkyl group
  8. What is the natural source of hydrocarbons
    petroleum
  9. organic compounds contain only hydrogen and carbon
    hydrocarbons
  10. breaking of a double bond to add another molecule
    addition reaction
  11. hydrocarbons that have pleasant aromas, cyclic structure
    aromatic hydrocarbons
  12. C6 H6
    benzene
  13. hydrocarbons that have one or more hydrogen atoms replaced by different atoms or functional groups
    substituted hydrocarbons
  14. what is the common name of methanol?

    Ethanol?
    • wood alcohol
    • grain alcohol
  15. an organic compound that has hade one or more hydrogen atoms replaced by an -OH functional group
    alcohol(s)
  16. hydroxyl groups attached directly to an aromatic ring
    phenol(s)
  17. what type of substituted hydrocarbon results when a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol
    ester(s)
  18. two classes of substituted hydrocarbons that contain nitrogen atoms in the functional group
    • amines
    • amide
  19. a amine that occurs naturally in plants
    alkaloids
  20. what broad group of organic compounds do plastics and synthetic fibers belong
    polymers
  21. what class of polymers contains repeated ester groups
    polyester
  22. what term refers to aromatic polyamide polymers
    aramids
  23. a group of versatile polymers composed of silicon-oxygen chains
    silicones
  24. molecule containing an amine group and a carboxylic acid group that are both attached to the same carbon atom
    amino acid
  25. a polymer of many amino acid monomers
    protein
  26. simplest carbohydrates
    contains about 3-8 carbon atoms per molecule

    Ex. glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose
    monosaccharides
  27. two monosaccharide molecules bonded together

    Ex. sucrose, lactose, maltose
    disaccharides
  28. a polymers of monosaccharides

    Ex. amylose (plant starch), amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose
    polysaccharides
  29. how is glucose stored in cells
    as polymers
  30. what is the simplest type of lipid molecule
    fatty acid
  31. what type of biological molecule results form an esterification reaction between three fatty acid molecule possesses
    triglyceride
  32. what group of lipids form the lipid bilayer of cell membranes
    phospholipids
  33. two types of nucleic acids
    • DNA
    • RNA
Author
Rayna
ID
346538
Card Set
ch 18
Description
A Beka 11th-12th grade chemistry
Updated