Carbohydrate Metabolism Biochemistry

  1. Which enzyme catalyzes the regulatory step of glycolysis?
    Phosphofructokinase 1
  2. What is the action of PFK-1?
    phosphorylates carbon 1 on fructose-6phosphate to got fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
  3. What is the committed substrate of glycolysis?
    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
  4. True/false: PFK 2 is the most powerful activator of PFK1
    True, PFK 2 upregulates glycolysis
  5. True/false: Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase down regulates glycolysis
    True
  6. True/false: Fructose-1,6-bisphophatase is the committed step in glycolysis
    False; fructose-1,6-bisphophatASE catalyzes the regulated step in GLUCONEOGENESIS
  7. Insulin gets sugar _______ the blood, in response to_____.
    • Out of
    • High blood glucose and fatty acids
  8. Insulin is released by _______ cells and is ______ by high glucose
    • Beta
    • Stimulated
  9. Glucagon is released by ______ Cells and is _____ by high glucose
    • Alpha
    • Inhibited
  10. How does the body utilize the glucose that got removed by insulin?
    Burn or store glucose
  11. True/false: insulin signals a decrease in glucagon production
    True
  12. When there is high ATP, is glycolysis inhibited or stimulated? Gluconeogenesis?
    • Glycolysis is inhibited because there is enough energy in the body
    • Gluconeogenesis is stimulated in high energy state
  13. When there is high AMP, is glycolysis inhibited or stimulated? Gluconeogenesis?
    • Glycolysis is stimulated in need of more energy
    • Gluconeogenesis is inhibited
  14. When there is high Fructose-2,6-bisphophate level, is glycolysis inhibited or stimulated? Gluconeogenesis?
    • Glycolysis stimulated
    • Gluconeogenesis inhibited
  15. High levels of ATP, cAMP, citrate and acetyl CoA _______ glycolysis and ______ gluconeogenesis
    • Inhibits
    • Stimulates
  16. High levels of AMP and F2,6BP ______ glycolysis and ______gluconeogenesis
    • Stimulates
    • Inhibits
  17. Too much citrate buildup will signal ____ of glycolysis, because it is a product of glycolysis
    Downregulation (negative feedback)
  18. Too much Acetyl CoA buildup will signal ____ of glycolysis, because it is a product of glycolysis
    Downregulation (negative feedback)
  19. Low energy compounds _____ glycolysis and _____ gluconeogenesis
    • Upregulates
    • Downregulates
  20. List low energy products that upregulates glycolysis:
    • F-2,6-BP
    • AMP
  21. In which cell types does glycogen synthesis occur?
    • Hepatocytes
    • Myocytes
  22. True/false: insulin stimulates glycolysis in hepatocytes and myocytes only
    False; it stimulates glycolysis in all cell types, including adipocytes
  23. Which GLUT receptor is insulin sensitive?
    GLUT 4
  24. Insulin affects glucose uptake (GLUT 4) in which cell types?
    • Myocytes
    • Adipocytes
  25. True/false: Insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis in all cell types
    True
  26. Insulin stimulates glycogenolysis in which cell types?
    None!
  27. True/false: insulin does not stimulate gluconeogenesis in any cell type
    True
  28. Insulin simulates fatty acid beta oxidation in which cell types?
    none
  29. Insulin is associated with the synthesis of which biomolecules?
    • fatty acid
    • Triacylglycerol
    • Cholesterol
  30. True/false: insulin does not stimulate ketone body synthesis
    True
  31. True/false: glucagon does not stimulate glycolysis in any cells
    True
  32. Glucagon stimulates glycogen synthesis in which cell types?
    none
  33. What processes does glucagon stimulate in hepatocytes?
    • Glycogenolysis
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • Fatty acid beta oxidation
    • Ketone body synthesis
  34. What processes does glucagon inhibit in hepatocytes?
    • Glycogen synthesis
    • Glycolysis
    • Fatty acid, triacylglycerol and cholesterol synthesis
  35. What processes does insulin stimulate in hepatocytes?
    • Glycogen synthesis
    • Glycolysis
    • Fatty acid, triacylglycerol and cholesterol synthesis
  36. What processes does insulin inhibit in hepatocytes?
    • Glycogenolysis
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • Fatty acid beta oxidation
    • Ketone body synthesis
  37. What processes does epinephrine stimulate in hepatocytes?
    • Glycogenolysis
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • Fatty acid beta oxidation
  38. What processes does insulin stimulate in myocytes?
    • glucose uptake
    • Glycogen synthesis
    • Glycolysis
  39. What processes does glucagon stimulate in myocytes?
    Glucagon has no effect on myocytes
  40. What processes does epinephrine stimulate in myocytes?
    • Glycogenolysis
    • Glycolysis
  41. What processes does insulin stimulate in adipocytes?
    • Glucose uptake
    • Glycogen synthesis
    • Glycolysis
    • Fatty acid synthesis
    • Triacylglycerol synthesis
  42. What processes does glucagon stimulate in adipocytes?
    Fatty acid mobilization
  43. What processes does insulin epinephrine in adipocytes?
    Fatty acid mobilization
  44. True/false: hepatocytes GLUT 4 transporters are not affected by insulin, glucagon nor epinephrine
    True
  45. True/false: insulin affects GLUT 4 transporters in myocytes and adipocytes
    True
  46. Glycolysis in hepatocytes are inhibited by which hormones?
    Glucagon and epinephrine
  47. Gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes are inhibited by which hormone?
    Insulin
  48. Gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes are stimulated by which hormone?
    Glucagon and epinephrine
  49. What stimulates glycogen synthesis in myocytes? Inhibits it?
    • Insulin stimulates
    • Epinephrine inhibits
  50. What stimulate glycolysis in myocytes?
    Insulin and epinephrine
  51. What stimulate glycogenolysis in myocytes? Inhibits it?
    • epinephrine stimulates
    • Insulin inhibits
  52. What inhibits glucose uptake in myocytes?
    epinephrine
  53. True/false: epinephrine parallels glucagon and opposes insulin signaling, but up-regulates glycolysis
    True
Author
lykthrnn
ID
346525
Card Set
Carbohydrate Metabolism Biochemistry
Description
Renal Final- Biochemistry
Updated