Urine Sedimentations: Crystals and Casts

  1. True/false: urine dipsticks detects albumin along with other micro proteins
    False; urine dipsticks only detects albumin
  2. Which values constitute as abnormal urine protein?
    Greater than 150 mg/ day
  3. What are urine sediments?
    Microscopic observations of crystals, bacteria, cells or casts
  4. Uric acid crystals are associated with which pathologies?
    • Acidic urine
    • Gout
  5. Calcium oxalate crystals are associated with which pathologies?
    • Acute kidney injury – antifreeze poisoning
    • Kidney stones
  6. Cystine crystals are associated with which pathology?
    Cystine stones = usually in children
  7. Magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals are associated with which pathology?
    Struvite stones- bacterial (likely proteus) infections
  8. Calcium stones are radio-______, while non-calcium stones are radio-________.
    • Opaque
    • Radiolucent
  9. Which are calcium stones?
    • Calcium oxalate/ phosphate
    • Struvite
  10. Which are non-calcium stones?
    • Cystine
    • Urate
  11. Which stones will show on KUB?
    Calcium stones because they are radio opaque
  12. Uric acid stones are _____ stones and ___(can/cannot) be seen in KUB
    • Non-calcium
    • Cannot
  13. Cystine stones are _____ stones and ___(can/cannot) be seen in KUB
    • Non-calcium
    • Cannot
  14. Calcium oxalate stones are _____ stones and ___(can/cannot) be seen in KUB
    • calcium
    • can
  15. struvite stones are _____ stones and ___(can/cannot) be seen in KUB
    • calcium
    • can
  16. Calcium oxalate crystals have characteristic _____ shape pattern
    X
  17. Cystine stones have characteristic ____ shape
    Hexagonal – stop sign
  18. Which stone is often found in kids and what is the characteristic shape?
    • Cystine
    • Hexagonal shape
  19. Urease bacterial infection would result in which stone?
    struvite
  20. Dysmorphic red blood cell urine sediment is associated with which pathology?
    glomerular disease
  21. What are urine casts?
    • Urine sediment that takes shape and size of the renal tubule where they are formed
    • Composed primarily of Tamm-horsfall mucoproteins
  22. True/false: some casts can be found in normal individuals
    True
  23. Which casts are often seen with dehydration?
    Hyaline casts
  24. What is the composition of granular casts?
    aggregation of proteins and degenerated cells
  25. Granular casts generally signify what pathology?
    acute renal failure
  26. What are waxy casts?
    Homogenous in appearance, last stage of degeneration of a granular cast
  27. True/false: waxy casts usually indicates end-stage renal disease
    True
  28. RBC casts is indicative of _____hematuria
    Glomerular
  29. Fatty casts are associated with _______ syndrome
    Nephrotic
  30. Epithelial cell casts suggests ______.
    Acute tubular necrosis
  31. True/false: creatinine is secreted while inulin is not
    True
  32. True/false: Higher serum creatinine, higher GFR
    False; high creatinine, low GFR
Author
lykthrnn
ID
346241
Card Set
Urine Sedimentations: Crystals and Casts
Description
Renal Midterm- Clinical
Updated