Bio 99 Midterm 1 Lec:1

  1. DNA:

  2. RNA is produced through the process known as:
  3. Central Dogma
    • DNA replicates
    • DNA is converted to RNA through transcription
    • RNA is converted to protein through translation
  4. Exceptions to the Central Dogma
    • RNA viruses
    • Telomerase
    • Peptidyl Transferase
    • Prions
  5. What are the three components of DNA & RNA
    • Phosphate
    • Pentose
    • Purine or Pyrimidine base
  6. Ribose (RNA) Stucture
    Image Upload 1
  7. 2' Deoxyribose (DNA) Structure
    Image Upload 2
  8. Purines
    • adenine
    • Image Upload 3
    • guanine
    • Image Upload 4
  9. pyrimidines
    • thymine
    • Image Upload 5
    • uracil
    • Image Upload 6
    • cytosine
    • Image Upload 7
  10. ionization and tautomerization of the bases
    Image Upload 8
  11. Purines:
    name bases and nucleoside nomenclature
    • adenine:(deoxy)adenosine
    • guanine:(deoxy)guanosine
  12. Pyrimidines:
    name bases and nucleoside nomenclature
    • cytosine:(deoxy)cytidine
    • uracil(RNA):uridine
    • thymine(DNA):thymidine
  13. AMP
    adenosine 5'-monophosphate
  14. GDP
    guanosine 5'-diphosphate
  15. dCMP
    deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate
  16. 3'-UMP
    uridine 3'-monophosphate
  17. TTP
    thymidine 5'-triphosphate
  18. Which of the following is not true regarding ATP?
    A.It has a 2’ OH group
    B.It acts as energy currency in the cell due to the high energy pentose/adenine glycosidic bond
    C.It is generated by the cell primarily during oxidative phosphorylation
    D.It is not incorporated into a nucleotide chain by DNA polymeras
    E.All of the above are true
  19. what keeps a DNA helix together?
    • base stacking
    • hydrogen bonds
  20. Which of the following best describes the directionality of a DNA strand?

    A. Only one end of a strand has a free phosphate and one a free OH
  21. How do you accomplish DNA denaturation?
    • In vivo:helicases
    • In vitro:temperature
  22. DNA undergoes a hyperchromic shift during _____?
  23. Tm is what?
    temperature at which the rise in A260 id half complete
  24. How would the following changes affect Tm of a given DNA molecule?1. Replace ½ of the A-T nucleotides for G-C
    A.IncreaseB.No change
    A. Increase
  25. Forces that stabilize the helix:
    • 1.composition:stacking and H-bonds
    • 2.electrostatics:effect of salt composition
  26. How would the following changes affect Tm of a given DNA molecule?2. Increase pH from neutral to basic
    A.IncreaseB.No change
    c. decrease
  27. How would the following changes affect Tm of a given DNA molecule?3. Double the salt concentration in the solution
    A.IncreaseB.No change
  28. what is nucleic acid hybridization useful for?
    useful to locate gene sequences
  29. why is DNA our genetic information, not RNA?
    • more stable genetic form
    • RNA has -OH (the problem)
    • -strong nucleophile, will attack the phosphate
    • -strong bases catalyzes this reaction as well as Pb+, Hg+
Card Set
Bio 99 Midterm 1 Lec:1