Chapter 9 Abnormal Psychology

  1. How frequent is comorbidity of personality disorders?
    at least 50% of people who have a personality disorder also meet the criteria for another personality disorder. And 75% of people with personality disorders have depression, substance dependence, or anxiety disorder.
  2. If a researcher uses physiological devices near the eye of someone with antisocial personality disorder, what is the researcher investigating?
  3. What is the rate of antisocial personality disorder in men and women?
    5% for men and 2% for women
  4. What is a diagnostic hallmark of borderline personality disorder?
    Identity Disturbance
  5. Why do mental health professionals view personality disorders as important?
    1. Personality disorders are associated with significant social and occupational impairment. They disrupt interpersonal relationships, including those with friends and coworkers. They play an important role in many cases of martial discord and violence. 

    2. The presence of pathological personality traits during adolescence is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of other mental disorders. Negative emotionality often predicts the later onset of major depression or an anxiety disorder. 

    3. Sometimes personality disorders actually represent the beginning stages of the onset of a more serious form of psychopathology. Also comorbid personality disorders can interfere with the treatment of a disorder such as depression.
  6. What diagnosis usually accompanies various forms of abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in adolescent girls?
    Borderline personality disorder
  7. What diagnosis would be made for someone who has a grandiose sense of self-importance, an inability to empathize with others and a preoccupation with his own achievements?
    narcissistic personality disorder
  8. What personality disorder would show high scores on a scale that measures perfectionism?
    Obsessive compulsive disorder
  9. When Cohen surveyed adolescents for prevalence of personality disorders, what did they find?
    17 %  of the adolescents received a diagnosis at lest one personality disorder. Categorically defined diagnoses were not particularly stable; fewer than half of the adolescents who originally qualified for a personality disorder diagnosis met the dame criteria two years later. Many of the participants continued to exhibit similar problems over the next 20 years.
  10. If a patient has odd behaviors, perceptions and dress, but no delusions or hallucinations, what is the most likely diagnosis?
    Schizotypal personality disorder
  11. Why is it hard to determine rates of personality disorders around the world?
    Because personality disorders may be more closely tied to cultural expectations than any other kids mental disorder.
  12. What does the proposed dimensional model place primary emphasis on?
    It's based on a two part process : 

    1. The clinician is asked to make a judgment regarding impairment in personality functioning as defined by problems with the person's view of self and others ( identity and sell-direction) as well as difficulties with maintaining interpersonal relationships (empathy and intimacy).  Problems identified in these areas see as general markers for the presence of a personality disorder; it is the key decision point in deciding whether to assign a diagnosis. 

    2. Specify the nature of from of the disorder using ratings of pathological personality traits. What kind of personality problem does the person exhibit?
  13. What is neuroticism?
    -Negative emotionality 

    -A temperament related to extreme or diminished - Anxiety, anger, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerablity
  14. What is the overall lifetime prevalence rate for at least one personality disorder of any type?
    10 %
  15. What are paranoid beliefs?
    The belief, without good reason, that other people are exploiting, deceiving, or trying to harm them. Unreasonable fears of being abandoned, criticized, or rejected.
  16. Do personality disorders occur more frequently in women?
    No they are equal between sexes. Except for antisocial personality disorder is higher in men.
  17. What is a person’s temperament?
    Refers to a person's most basic, characteristic styles of relating to the world, especially those styles that are evident during the first year of life.
  18. Where is the highest rates of antisocial personality disorder found in children?
    The offspring of antisocial biological partners who are raise din an adverse adoptive environment.
  19. What disorder is most strongly related to conscientiousness in the five-factor model?
  20. What personality disorder is demonstrated by someone who usually stays at home, rarely interacts with others, stays away from other people and prefers to remain in the stock room at work?
    avoidant personality disorder
  21. What set of characteristics is associated with paranoid personality disorder, when looking at the clusters of personality disorders in the DSM?
    Odd, eccentric, or asocial. Similar to schizophrenia but not quite. Involves the pervasive tendency to be inappropriately suspicious of other people's motives and behaviors.
  22. What is one of the reasons that personality disorder category is controversial?
    They are difficult to identify reliably, they show high levels of comorbidity month themselves and with other mental disorders, and their definition has not been well grounded in scientific knowledge regarding basic elements of personality.
  23. What personality disorder in adulthood is predicted by conduct disorder in childhood?
    Antisocial personality disorder
  24. What behaviors are consistent with narcissistic personality disorder?
    They have a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and inability to empathize with others.
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Chapter 9 Abnormal Psychology
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