Fetal urine production contributes to the production of what?
What does low amniotic fluid in fetus signify?
Problem with kidney development
Which embryonic layer gives rise to upper urinary system?
Which embryonic layer gives rise to the lower urinary system?
Mesoderm gives rise to which part of the urinary system?
Endoderm gives rise to which part of the urinary system?
Urogenital ridge is formed from which embryonic tissue?
What is urogenital ridge?
longitudinal elevation on each side of the embryo
Around what week does the urogenital ridge come about?
Late week 4
What are the terms that describe embryonic kidney sets?
True/false: kidneys develop in a caudal to cranial sequence in human embryos
False; they develop in a cranial to caudal sequence
In early week _____, _____ appear for a short period of time and immediately regresses at the end of that week. At the end of week ____, _____ will begin to appear and function for a short time in early fetal period, while ______ begin to develop until after birth.
Which set of kidneys are the rudimentary and nonfunctional form?
Which set of kidneys function for a short time in early fetal period?
Which set of kidneys are the permanent kidneys?
True/false: mesonephroi are transient, rudimentary structures that never function
False; pronephroi are, not mesonephroi
What is the name of the caudal portion of the gut tube at the end of pronephric duct?
True/false: pronephric duct extends all the way to the gut tube and persists even when pronephroi degenerate
True/false: mesonephroi appear as two ovoid organs on either side of the midline of the embryo
What is the function of the mesonephric ducts?
Used to convey urine that is produced down to the cloaca
In between which weeks do the mesonephric ducts function and produce urine?
What gives rise to parts of the adult kidneys?
How should I remember which one comes first, mesonephroi or metanephroi?
MeSonephroi comes before meTanephroi because “S” comes before “T”.
When does nephrogenesis occur?
Beginning of week 8
When do nephrons begin functioning?
True/false: nephrons begin to develop and function at week 8
False; it begins developing, but not functioning until week 10
Where does nephrogenesis occur?
True/false: angiotensin II and its receptor have a very important role in kidney development
Between 6th and 9th weeks, the kidneys will ____ from the pelvis to the lumbar region
Describe the kidneys changes in position and rotation during development:
Ascends and rotate 90 degrees medially
At which vertebral levels are adult kidneys typically found?
Vertebral column T12-L3 levels
True/false: cranial branches of renal arteries undergo involution and disappear
False; caudal branches involute and disappear
Where do renal arteries branch off from?
Common iliac arteries
True/false: fetal kidneys are smooth and adult kidneys are lobulated in appearance
False; fetal kidneys are lobulated and adult kidneys are smooth
True/false: nephron formation is complete at term
True/false: functioning maturation of nephron is complete at term
False; it continues to mature after birth
True/false: kidneys size increases after birth because of increasing production of nephrons
False; nephrons are completely formed (in terms of number) at birth, the increase in size is due to hypertrophy of existing nephrons
Having no kidneys is ____ with life
What happens to the amount of amniotic fluid when there is no kidney?
Low amniotic fluid
What is the name of the syndrome where amniotic fluid is low?
Where are ectopic kidneys typically found?
What is it called when there are many renal arteries around the kidney, ones that should have regressed
Supernumerary renal arteries
What is horseshoe kidney?
When the inferior poles of the kidneys make contact and fuse together
True/false: horseshoe kidneys are non functional
False, they are still able to produce urine and function independently
What is the most common renal abnormality?
How does bifid ureter occur?
When there is either very premature branching of the ureteric bud or a duplication of the urtetric bud
Which organs comprise o the lower urinary system?
Cloaca is divided by the ______ into rectum _____ (dorsally/ventrally) and urogenital sinus ______(dorsally/ ventrally)
Cloaca is partitioned into which two regions?
What embryonic tissue lines the chamber of the cloaca?
Allantois is _____ to the cloaca
What are the three parts of the urogenital sinus?
Which part of the urogenital sinus becomes the urinary bladder?
vesicle part (cranial)
Which part of the urogenital sinus becomes the urethra?
Pelvic part (middle)
Which part of the urogenital sinus becomes the primordium of penis in males and primordium of clitoris in female?
Phallic part (caudal)
epithelial of the entire female urethra is derived from which embryological layer?
Smooth muscle and connective tissue of the bladder and urethra is derived from which tissue?
What is trigone?
Smooth triangular region on dorsal bladder wall, resulting from the incorporation of distal parts of the mesonephric ducts
What does the allantois eventually become?
What is the urachus
An fibrous cord formed by the narrowing of the allantois
True/false: allantois is a vestigial structure, has no function other than a passageway that extends into the connecting stalk