Renal Embryology

  1. Which organs make up the upper urinary system?
    Kidneys sand ureters
  2. Fetal urine production contributes to the production of what?
    Amniotic fluid
  3. What does low amniotic fluid in fetus signify?
    Problem with kidney development
  4. Which embryonic layer gives rise to upper urinary system?
  5. Which embryonic layer gives rise to the lower urinary system?
  6. Mesoderm gives rise to which part of the urinary system?
    Upper urinary
  7. Endoderm gives rise to which part of the urinary system?
    Lower urinary
  8. Urogenital ridge is formed from which embryonic tissue?
    Intermediate mesoderm
  9. What is urogenital ridge?
    longitudinal elevation on each side of the embryo
  10. Around what week does the urogenital ridge come about?
    Late week 4
  11. What are the terms that describe embryonic kidney sets?
    • Pronephroi
    • Mesonephroi
    • Metanephroi
  12. True/false: kidneys develop in a caudal to cranial sequence in human embryos
    False; they develop in a cranial to caudal sequence
  13. In early week _____, _____ appear for a short period of time and immediately regresses at the end of that week. At the end of week ____, _____ will begin to appear and function for a short time in early fetal period, while ______ begin to develop until after birth.
    • 4
    • Pronephroi
    • 4
    • Mesonephroi
    • Metanephroi
  14. Which set of kidneys are the rudimentary and nonfunctional form?
  15. Which set of kidneys function for a short time in early fetal period?
  16. Which set of kidneys are the permanent kidneys?
  17. True/false: mesonephroi are transient, rudimentary structures that never function
    False; pronephroi are, not mesonephroi
  18. What is the name of the caudal portion of the gut tube at the end of pronephric duct?
  19. True/false: pronephric duct extends all the way to the gut tube and persists even when pronephroi degenerate
  20. True/false: mesonephroi appear as two ovoid organs on either side of the midline of the embryo
  21. What is the function of the mesonephric ducts?
    Used to convey urine that is produced down to the cloaca
  22. In between which weeks do the mesonephric ducts function and produce urine?
    Weeks 5-10
  23. What gives rise to parts of the adult kidneys?
    Mesonephric duct
  24. How should I remember which one comes first, mesonephroi or metanephroi?
    MeSonephroi comes before meTanephroi because “S” comes before “T”.
  25. When does nephrogenesis occur?
    Beginning of week 8
  26. When do nephrons begin functioning?
    Week 10
  27. True/false: nephrons begin to develop and function at week 8
    False; it begins developing, but not functioning until week 10
  28. Where does nephrogenesis occur?
    Metanephric mass
  29. True/false: angiotensin II and its receptor have a very important role in kidney development
  30. Between 6th and 9th weeks, the kidneys will ____ from the pelvis to the lumbar region
  31. Describe the kidneys changes in position and rotation during development:
    Ascends and rotate 90 degrees medially
  32. At which vertebral levels are adult kidneys typically found?
    Vertebral column T12-L3 levels
  33. True/false: cranial branches of renal arteries undergo involution and disappear
    False; caudal branches involute and disappear
  34. Where do renal arteries branch off from?
    • Common iliac arteries
    • Distal aorta
    • Abdominal aorta
  35. True/false: fetal kidneys are smooth and adult kidneys are lobulated in appearance
    False; fetal kidneys are lobulated and adult kidneys are smooth
  36. True/false: nephron formation is complete at term
  37. True/false: functioning maturation of nephron is complete at term
    False; it continues to mature after birth
  38. True/false: kidneys size increases after birth because of increasing production of nephrons
    False; nephrons are completely formed (in terms of number) at birth, the increase in size is due to hypertrophy of existing nephrons
  39. Having no kidneys is ____ with life
  40. What happens to the amount of amniotic fluid when there is no kidney?
    Low amniotic fluid
  41. What is the name of the syndrome where amniotic fluid is low?
    Potter syndrome
  42. Where are ectopic kidneys typically found?
  43. What is it called when there are many renal arteries around the kidney, ones that should have regressed
    Supernumerary renal arteries
  44. What is horseshoe kidney?
    When the inferior poles of the kidneys make contact and fuse together
  45. True/false: horseshoe kidneys are non functional
    False, they are still able to produce urine and function independently
  46. What is the most common renal abnormality?
    Bifid ureter
  47. How does bifid ureter occur?
    When there is either very premature branching of the ureteric bud or a duplication of the urtetric bud
  48. Which organs comprise o the lower urinary system?
    • Bladder
    • Urethra
  49. Cloaca is divided by the ______ into rectum _____ (dorsally/ventrally) and urogenital sinus ______(dorsally/ ventrally)
    • Urorectal septum
    • Dorsal
    • Ventral
  50. Cloaca is partitioned into which two regions?
    • Rectum
    • Urogenital sinus
  51. What embryonic tissue lines the chamber of the cloaca?
  52. Allantois is _____ to the cloaca
  53. What are the three parts of the urogenital sinus?
    • Vesicle part
    • Pelvic part
    • Phallic part
  54. Which part of the urogenital sinus becomes the urinary bladder?
    vesicle part (cranial)
  55. Which part of the urogenital sinus becomes the urethra?
    Pelvic part (middle)
  56. Which part of the urogenital sinus becomes the primordium of penis in males and primordium of clitoris in female?
    Phallic part (caudal)
  57. epithelial of the entire female urethra is derived from which embryological layer?
  58. Smooth muscle and connective tissue of the bladder and urethra is derived from which tissue?
    Splanchnic mesenchyme
  59. What is trigone?
    Smooth triangular region on dorsal bladder wall, resulting from the incorporation of distal parts of the mesonephric ducts
  60. What does the allantois eventually become?
  61. What is the urachus
    An fibrous cord formed by the narrowing of the allantois
  62. True/false: allantois is a vestigial structure, has no function other than a passageway that extends into the connecting stalk
Card Set
Renal Embryology
Renal Midterm- Embryology