NUR 411

  1. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
    Combine with reverse transcriptase enzyme to block the process needed to convert HIV RNA into HIV DNA.

    • nevirapine (Viramune) -GI upset, headache
    • delavirdine (Rescriptor)-Headache, fatigue, GI upset, neutropenia, pruritis
    • efavirenz (Sustiva)- Dizziness, trouble concentrating, unusual dreams, confusion, anxiety, depression, diarrhea, encephalopathy; false-positive cannabinoid test
  2. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
    Insert a piece of DNA into the developing HIV DNA chain, blocking further development of the chain and leaving the production of the new strand of HIV DNA incomplete.

    zidovudine (AZT, ZDV, Retrovir)- Nausea, vomiting, anemia, leukopenia, fatigue, headache, insomnia, pancreatitis

    didanosine (ddI, Videx, Videx-EC [time-released])- Nausea, diarrhea, peripheral neuropathy (dose related and reversible), pancreatitis

    stavudine (d4T, Zerit)- Peripheral neuropathy, nausea, pancreatitis

    lamivudine (3TC, Epivir)- Minimal toxicities, nausea, nasal congestion

    abacavir (Ziagen)- Nausea; hypersensitivity reaction, including fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, malaise, sore throat, shortness of breath, cough, rash; may produce life-threatening event if hypersensitivity is rechallenged

    emtricitabine (FTC, Emtriva)- Headache, diarrhea, nausea, rash, skin discoloration

    Combivir (lamivudine and zidovudine combination)- Combines side effects of lamivudine and zidovudine

    Trizivir (lamivudine, zidovudine, and abacavir combination)-Combines side effects of lamivudine, zidovudine, and abacavir

    Epizicom (lamivudine and abacavir combination)- Combines side effects of lamivudine and abacavir
  3. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTI)
    Inhibit the action of reverse transcriptase

    tenofovir DF (Viread)- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

    Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine combination)- Combines side effects of tenofovir and emtricitabine
  4. Protease inhibitors (PIs)
    Prevent the protease enzyme from cutting HIV proteins into the proper lengths needed to allow viable virions to assemble and bud out from the cell membrane

    saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase)- Diarrhea, nausea, headache

    indinavir (Crixivan) -Nausea, diarrhea, asymptomatic hyperbilirubinemia, interstitial nephritis, kidney stones (patient should drink 2–4 L of fluid a day)

    ritonavir (Norvir)—(most often used in low doses with other PIs to boost effect )-Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, taste perversion, circumoral and perioral paresthesia, hepatitis

    nelfinavir (Viracept) -Diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, rash

    amprenavir (Agenerase) -Nausea, vomiting, headache, taste perversion, perioral paresthesia, severe skin rashes, diarrhea, periorbital paresthesia

    Kaletra (lopinavir and ritonavir combination) -Nausea, diarrhea, taste perversion, perioral and circumoral paresthesia, hepatitis

    atazanavir (Reyataz) -Nausea, diarrhea, hyperbilirubinemia.

    fosamprenavir (Lexiva) -Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache

    tipranavir (Aptivus) -Nausea, diarrhea, headache, clinical hepatitis, increased transaminases, hepatic decompensation, symptoms of sulfa allergy, rash, or photosensitivity
  5. Entry inhibitors (EI)
    Prevent binding of HIV to cells, thus preventing entry of HIV into cells where replication would occur

    enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)

    Injection site reactions (ISRs), fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, peripheral neuropathy, hypersensitivity reaction, pneumonia
Card Set
NUR 411
HIV meds