TD L15

  1. Rule-Based Decision Making
    • A decision maker recognises the choice situation as a member of a category for which the best action is known and has already been stored
    • once situation is classified, "if-then" rule is activated which dictates the behaviour or choice

    decision is retrieved rather than constructed
  2. Characteristics of Rule Based Decision Making
    • recognition an categorisation processes are the primary cognitive activity
    • action is triggered relatively automatically by the relevant rule fast and easy on cognitive resources

    best suited to satisfy goal of quick, consistent, appropriate behaviour
  3. Which rule do you follow?
    logic of appropriateness

    • 1. recognise situation
    • 2. identify role 
    • 3. identify rules
  4. types of recognition based decision models
    • 1. Non Deliberative
    • 2. Principle Based 
    • 3. Steorytype Based
    • 4. Case Based
  5. Non Deliberative decision
    • routinised decisions
    • e.g. "deciding" to stop at a red traffic light
  6. Principle-Based decisions
    • decisions makers learn that, for certain situations, cost-benefit based or affect-based decision produce "sub-optimum" outcomes
    • e.g. due to insufficient self-control in the face of temptations, leading to regret, or due to social rules
  7. Stereotype Based decision
    • judgement or action is stored in memory in association with the stereotyped category
    • e.g. you think you saw a snake slither past so you "decide" to jump on the rock
  8. Case Based decision of experts
    • rich episodic memory in their domain of expertise
    • new problem evokes similar situations in the past, the action taken, and their consequences
    • this is what klein calls recognition primed decision making
  9. case based decision making elaborated
    • 1. first option is usually workable (not random generation and selective retention)
    • 2. serial generation/evaluation of options (not concurrent evaluation/comparison)
    • 3. satisficing (not optimising)
    • 4. evaluation through mental simulation (not MAUT or Bayesian statistics)
    • 5. focus on elaborating and improving options(not choosing among options)
    • 6. decision maker primed to act
  10. When to use role based decision making
    • in situations where calculation based decisions would lead to socially suboptimal outcomes (doctors are bound to their oath to assist an injured person even if it is inconvenient) 
    • social roles are associated with certain rules of conduct and expectations of role-appropriate behaviour 

    best suited to satisfy social goal of affiliation
  11. affect based decision making
    • people base their decision on their holistic emotional reaction to different choice options
    • e.g. impulse buying, choosing the insurance that's advertised with commercials and have puppies, deciding not to decide if all options make you feel bad
  12. Affect-Based decision-making characteristics
    • conditioned responses that occur almost instantaneously (e.g. fight or flight, phobias, intuitive bad feeling)
    • strong enough to overrule rational calculation of costs and benefits
    • fast and easy on cognitive resources

    best suited to satisfy emotional goals (and deal with time constraints)
  13. Decision Modes
    • every mode has pros and cons
    • decision modes can conflict with each other or lead to different decisions
    • mode used varies on situation, decision, individual, and goal
Card Set
TD L15
thinking and decision making