Chapter 6 Abnormal Psychology

  1. How do people who worry excessively usually report their worries to be?
    They emphasize the predominance of verbal, linguistic material rather than images.
  2. What type of situation is most likely to be associated with the development of a panic attack?
    a sudden, overwhelming experience of terror or fright. It can be cued by a particular stimuli like public speaking or unexpected.
  3. What are the criteria from the DSM to identify panic attacks?
    A person must experience at least four of 13 symptoms: heart palpitations, sweating, trembling, nausea, dizziness, and chills. The symptoms must develop suddenly, and reach peak intensity within 10 minutes.
  4. When is fear considered phobic?
    When the person avoids contact with the source of the fear or experiences intense anxiety in the presence of the stimulus.
  5. What is the typical course of anxiety disorders?
    Anxiety disorders are typically chronic conditions. Long term follow up studies focused on clinical populations indicate that many people continue to experience symptoms  of anxiety and associated social and occupational impairment mean years after their problems are initially recognized. But some people do recover so the most general conclusion is that the long term outcome is mixed and unpredictable.
  6. When would a person exhibit a social phobia?
    Doing something  in front of unfamiliar people ( performance anxiety)

    Interpersonal interactions (dating, parties)
  7. What do splitters argue in the debate regarding anxiety disorders?
    They would distinguish among a number of more specific conditions, each of which is presumed to have its own unique causes and perhaps respond best to a particular form of treatment.
  8. According to the NCS-R, what is the most common type of anxiety disorder?
    Specific phobias with a prevalence of 9% and next is Social anxiety disorder at 7%
  9. What do current theories of the evolutionary significance of anxiety and fear suggest?
    Generalized forms of anxiety probably evolved to help the person prepare for threats that could not be identified clearly. More specific forms of anxiety and fear probably velvet to provide more effective responses to certain types of danger. Each type of anxiety disorder can be viewed as the deregulation of a mechanism that evolved to deal with a particular kind of danger. This leads us to expect that the etiological pathways leading to various forms of anxiety disorders may be partially distinct but not completely independent.
  10. Who would be at the greatest risk for the onset of agoraphobia, according to John Bowlby?
    Infants who are insecurely attached to their parents are presumably more likely to develop anxiety disorders, especially agoraphobia.
  11. What are the situations that explain different theories of phobia development?
    Fear of heights is associated with a freezing of muscles rather than running away, which could lead to a fall. 

    Social threats are more likely to provoke responses such shyness and embarrassment that may increase acceptance by other people by making the individual seem less threatening.
  12. What does the technique of breathing retraining provide education for with panic disorder patients?
    Education about physiological effects of hyperventilation and practice in slow breathing techniques.
  13. Agoraphobia is most closely associated with what type of attachment?
    infant's insecure attachment to parents
  14. What treatment could help reduce fear of bodily sensations that trigger panic attacks?
    Interoceptive exposure - the person engages in standardized exercises that are known to produce such physical sensations.
  15. Which drug produces clinical improvement more quickly than antidepressants for panic disorder?
    Alprazolam ( xanax)
  16. In twin studies of anxiety disorder, what is the heritability of generalized anxiety disorder?
    20-30 %
  17. What are compulsions?
    What are the effects of someone’s compulsions?
    repetitive behaviors or mental acts that are used to reduce anxiety.
  18. What do benzodiazepines most effectively treat?
    generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder
  19. In the OCD case study of Ed in the textbook, what was the first form of treatment that he received?
    clomipramine (Anafranil) - an antidepressant that is also used to treat people with severe obsessions. He also did weekly psychotherapy.
  20. What is the factor that plays a crucial role in the cognitive mechanisms involved in generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder?
    catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily sensations or perceived threat.
  21. What was the major result of the Cross-National Collaborative Panic Study?
    The fact that panic disorder occurred in all the countries that were included in the study.
  22. How is prevalence different between elderly and other age groups for anxiety disorders?
    Prevalence rates for anxiety disorders have been found to be lower when people over the age of 60 are compared to younger adults. On the other hand, the gradual reduction in anxiety that has been observed among middle-aged adults may reverse itself later in life. Anxiety may increase as people move into their 70's and 80's  Increase anxiety  among the elderly may be due to problems associated with loneliness, increased dependency, declining physical and cognitive capacities, and changes in social and economic conditions.
  23. Why do some doctors prefer imipramine for panic disorders over anti anxiety drugs?
    The patients are less likely to become dependent on the drug then they are to high potency benzodiazepines like alprazolam.
  24. What does research tell us on the long-term outcomes for people experiencing anxiety disorders?
    The outcomes are mixed and unpredictable
Card Set
Chapter 6 Abnormal Psychology
Notes for chapter 6