biochem final

  1. what occurs in the Golgi apparatus?
    sorting and secretion of some proteins
  2. what occurs in the cytosol?
    fatty acid synthesis, glycolysis, most gluconeogenesis
  3. what occurs in the mitochondria?
    citric acid cycle, electron transport + ATP synthesis, fatty acid degradation, and oxidative phosphorylation
  4. what occurs in the nucleus?
    nucleic acid synthesis
  5. what occurs in the lysosome?
    degredation of proteins, lipids, etc.
  6. what occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum?
    delivery of proteins and synthesis of lipids for membranes
  7. what is ATP hydrolysis?
    a catabolic reaction process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high energy phosphoanhydride bonds in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released by splitting bonds by producing work in the form of mechanical energy
  8. why is ATP hydrolysis energetically favored?
    • electrostatic repulsion (product of ADP or AMP has decreased in negative charge)
    • entropy increase
    • better solvation charge
    • resonance stabilization
  9. PEP(3-) + H2O ----> Pyruvate + HPO4 (2-)
    Image Upload 1
  10. _____ is an energy source to make ATP (also provide formula with enzyme)
    • Phosphocreatine
    • Image Upload 2
  11. How do cells make phosphocreatine from ATP?
    ATP + Creatine <-----> Phosphocreatine + ADP
  12. We use ATP as an energy source, but how do we make ATP?
    carbon, we convert carbon fuels, like glucose, to carbon dioxide
  13. What is creatine synthesized from?
    glycine, arginine, and methionine
  14. Creatine as a health indicator...
    • heart muscles expresses and isomyze of creatine kinase that is unique to that organ
    • presence of the heart creatine kinase in the blood is used as proof of heart attack
  15. How is creatine removed from the body?
    • creatine is normally removed through the renal system (kidneys)
    • presence of high levels of creatine in the blood indicates kidney failure
  16. What is NAD+?
    • Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
    • coenzyme
    • makes life possible
  17. Glycolysis: Step 1
    • Glucose is converted to glucose 6-phosphate with enzyme hexokinase
    • ATP->ADP
  18. Glycolysis: Step 2
    glucose 6-phosphate is converted to fructose 6-phosphate with enzyme phosphohexose isomerase
  19. Glycolysis: Step 3
    • fructose 6-phosphate is converted to fructose 1,6-biphosphate using enzyme phosphofructose kinase-1
    • ATP->ADP
  20. Glycolysis: Step 4
    fructose 1,6 biphosphate produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate from enxyme aldolase
  21. Glycolysis: Step 5
    glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate produces (2) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate with enzyme triose phosphate isomerase
  22. Glycolysis: Step 6
    • (2) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate produces (2) 1,3-biphosphoglycerate from enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
    • 2Pi and 2NAD+ -> 2NADH + 2H+
  23. Glycolysis: Step 7
    • (2) 1,3-biphosphoglycerate produces 3-phosphoglycerate with enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase
    • 2ADP->2ATP
  24. Glycolysis: Step 8
    3-phosphoglycerate produces (2) 2-phosphoglycerate with enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase
  25. Glycolysis: Step 9
    • (2) 2-phosphoglycerate produces (2) phosphoenolpyruvate with enzyme enolase
    • also produces 2 H2O
  26. Glycolysis: Step 10
    • (2) phosphoenolpyruvate produces (2) pyruvate with enzyme pyruvate kinase
    • 2ADP-> 2ATP
  27. Glucogenesis occurs in ___ while glycolysis occurs in ____
    liver, muscle
  28. Gluconeogenesis, include reaction formula
    • occurs in liver
    • provides glucose for the brain and muscles
    • 2 pyruvate + 2NADH + 4ATP + 2GTP +6H2O +2H(+) ----> Glucose + 2NAD(+) + 4ADP + 2GDP + 6Pi
  29. Type 1 Diabetes
    do not release insulin to regulate sugar levels
  30. Type 2 Diabetes
    insulin resistance is developed
  31. Insulin effect on gluconeogenesis (normal function)
    • turn off PEP carboxykinase
    • inhibit gluconeogenesis
  32. Insulin effect on gluconeogenesis (type 2 diabetes)
    • insulin does not inhibit gluconeogenesis
    • blood glucose levels increase (hyperglycemia)
  33. glycolysis vs glyconeogenesis
    • glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate
    • glyconeogenesis is the creation of glucose from pyruvate, lactate or krebs cycle intermediaries
  34. glycogen
    storage form of glucose in liver and muscle
  35. sucrose is 50% _____ and 50% _______
    glucose, fructose
  36. cellular respiration
    • complete conversion of carbon fuels into CO2 and ATP
    • aerobic
    • 90% of ATP produced this way
    • Stage 1: harvest electrons from Acetyl CoA through Citric Acid Cycle aka Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA Cycle) or Krebs Cycle
    • Stage 2: transfer electrons to O2, get ATP
  37. Acetyl CoA structure
    Image Upload 3
  38. Acetyl CoA is produced from pyruvate through which enzume
    • pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
    • releases CO2
  39. E1: TPP
    • Thiamene (vitamin B1)
    • found in wheat germ, whole wheat, peas, beans, enriched flour, fish, peanuts, and meat
    • deficiency causes anemia, sometimes lower back pain and canker sores
  40. E2: Lipoic acid
    • used as antioxidant
    • found in cells with lots of mitochondria
  41. E3: FAD (vitamin B2)
    FAD + 2H+ + 2e- <----> FADH2
  42. TCA Step: 1
    formation of citrate (condensation)
  43. TCA Step: 2
    formation of isocitrate vis cis-Aconitate
  44. TCA Step: 3
    oxidation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and CO2
  45. TCA Step: 4
    oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO2
  46. TCA Step: 5
    conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate
  47. TCA Step: 6
    oxidation of succinate to fumarate
  48. TCA Step: 7
    hydration of fumerate to malate
  49. TCA Step: 8
    oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate
  50. TCA Overview of Steps:
    Image Upload 4
  51. why do we need fat?
    • hibernating animals
    • migrating birds
    • source of energy, hormone, cell membranes
    • more kJ/g, less water, 6 times more energy than glycogen per gram
  52. bad cholesterol
    • low density liloprotein (LDL)
    • accumulate plaques on arterial walls--> heart attack
    • saturared fat or transfat
    • low protein/lipid content
  53. good cholesterol
    • high density lipoprotein (HDL)
    • bring cholesterol back to liver
    • unsaturated fat (cis double bond)
    • higher protein/lipid
    • 50% protein makes these dense
  54. Fatty Acid Oxidation Step: 0
    • tricylglyceride is converted to glycerol and fatty acids through enzyme lipase
    • 3H2O ---> 3H+
  55. F.A. Oxidation Summary
    • 1. cycles of reactions: all soluble, separate enzymes in m. matrix
    • 2. 3 reactions are similar to TCA
    • 3. "business" occurs betweem C2 and C3 (alpha, beta)
    • 4. once acetyl CoA per round (C2 unit --> TCA)
    • 5. yield: take one example
  56. Q&A About Fatty Acid Calculation
    Image Upload 5
  57. Fatty Acid Oxidation vs Biosynthesis: Opposing Processes
    Image Upload 6
  58. Subsequent steps:Catalyzed by Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS): A seven-domain complex
    Image Upload 7
  59. Anaerobic:
    • break sugar (glycolysis), accumulate lactate
    • Training: reduce fatigue and increase power burst
    • –increases anaerobic capacity
    • •More muscle cells to use more ATP
    • •Increased Glycolysis rate (raise PFK)•Increased gluconeogenesis rate (liver to provide glucose to muscle)
    • •Increase lactate tolerance in blood and muscle–but has less effect on
    • •Cardiovascular adaptation (heart pumping rate)
  60. Aerobic:
    • mostly burn fat, a minor sugar, produce CO2
    • Training: reduce fatigue and increase endurance
    • -Increase in hexokinase rate
    • –Increase Gluconeogenesis ability (liver)
    • –Increase the number and size of mitochondria, and enhance:
    • •Pyruvate dehydrogenase enzymes
    • •Krebs cycle enzymes
    • •Fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes
    • •Electron transport chain
    • –Fatty acid availability for oxidation, due to increased:
    • •lipoproteinlipase activity
    • –Increased uptake of creatine and fatty acids by skeletal muscle
    • •Acyl CoA synthetase activity
    • –Increases activation of fatty acids for transport into mitochondria
    • •Carnitine transporter activity
  61. Ubiquitin
    label for protein degradation
Card Set
biochem final