What is recall?
generating information from memory
What is recognition?
Remembering something that has happened before
What are the two types of recall? Describe them.
- free recall (any order)
- serial recall (specific order)
What is decay?
When information dissipates over time
What is interference?
When the information is there, but you can't find it
Why is decay almost impossible to study?
because it requires passage of time without any interference
Why is interference almost impossible to study?
because it requires new information to be presented without any passage of time
What is study was conducting to help us find an answer concerning decay vs. interference? What was the main question?
Was the counting part of the task preventing rehearsal, thus causing decay of letters OR are we displacing the letters due to holding the counting task in our short-term memory?
What is the serial position effect and its components?
We pay more attention to the beginning (primacy) and the end (recency)
What is rehearsal?
a method used to encode information into long term memory
What are the types of rehearsal? Define each.
- Maintenance Rehearsal - repeating over and over
- Elaborative Rehearsal - attaching meaning
What are the types of long-term memory?
Semantic, Episodic, Explicit, Implicit, Declarative, Procedural,
What is semantic long-term memory?
holds information stored in your general knowledge base, more generic info
What are characteristics of semantic long-term memory?
- it doesn't have much to do with personal experience
- might even remember where you learned the memory
- organized by meaning
What is episodic long-term memory?
holds memories for specific events in which you yourself have somehow participated in
What are the characteristics of episodic long-term memory?
- recalls not only the information, but also the circumstances and context
- any memory that you can trace to a single point
- organized temporally - before, after, or during other events or times
What are some examples episodic long-term memory?
9/11 attacks, high school graduation
What are some examples of semantic long term
knowing that football is a sport
What was one study that provides evidence for the distinction between episodic and semantic memory?
motorcycle accident resulted in brain damage the rider could remember facts about life (where he went to school, names of people he worked with, ect. which is semantic memory, but he/she couldn't remember specific events of his life (birthdays and conversations which is episodic memory)
What is explicit long-term memory?
memories that are consciously recollected
What are some characteristics of explicit long-term memory?
- Specifically referring to a time or event
- An awareness of the effort it takes to recall memories
What is implicit long-term memory?
Memories that are not deliberate or conscious
What are some characteristics of implicit long-term memory?
- Shows evidence of prior learning and storage
- "unconscious" memory storage and recall
What study provided evidence for the distinction between explicit and implicit memory?
A study with Amnesia and Alzheimer patients. Those with Amnesia performed just as well at implicit memory tasks and healthy controls, while performing poorly at explicit memory tasks
Alzheimer patients who have learned specific skills like riding a bike or playing the piano were still able to perform the task but had no recollection that they knew how to or when they learned it
What was a study used to identify sensory memory? Please explain it and what it proved.
Partial Report Task: A group of letters were flashed on the screen for a very brief time (originally 50 - 500 milliseconds). After the letters were flashed, a high, middle, or low tone was played after to indicate which row the participants were to recall. The participants were able to recall on average about 75% of the letters on that row which was significantly better than the original report task that asked the participants recall all the letters they were shown. What made this study extra interesting was that if the tone was delayed even for 1 second, the participants did no better with the partial report task than they did with the whole report task. This is what indicated that in this storage system they information did not last very long. When the participants were asked to identify only vowels or only consonants, they again did no better than the whole reports which indicated that in this storage the material was raw and unprocessed and uncategorized.
What was a study used to identify short-term memory? Please explain it and what it proved.
Memory Span: In this study, participants were flashed a letter or word, and then asked to recognize which words were shown. What was discovered was that participants were more likely to confuse the letters or words that sounded the same versus ones of similar meaning (in the case of words). This is why it is believed that our short term memory is encoded in terms of sound (auditory).
What is sensory memory?
Initial, brief storage of sensory information
What is assumed by the modal model of memory?
That information is received, processed, and stored differently for each kind of memory
Where is unattended information stored?
Where is attended information stored?
Where is rehearsed attended information stored?
What is the improved recall of items at the beginning of a list?
What is the approved recall for items at the end of a list?
How does the serial position effect provide evidence that there are at least two types of memory?
When participants were given a list they were showed the recency effect more because they said they could still "hear" the words. If the participants were asked to do a task in between, then they would show more of the primacy effect and the recency effect would disappear.
What are the properties of sensory memory?
- Coding: n/a
- Capacity: echoic - 10 to 15 seconds; iconic 1 to 2 seconds
- Duration: very short 1 to 2 seconds
What are the properties of short-term memory?
- Coding: auditory
- Capacity: 7 +/- 2 item or chunks
- Duration: 15 seconds without rehearsal1-2 minutes with rehearsal
What are the properties of long-term memory?
- Coding: Semantic; meaning or gist
- Capacity: unlimited
- Duration: lifetime
What was a study used to identify long-term memory? Please explain it and what it proved.
Baddeley conducted a study with participants were given words that looked alike (same length), sounded alike, and had similar (semantically) meaning. After 20 minutes of working on another task to prevent rehearsal, they were asked to recall. In contrast to STM they mixed up words with similar meaning thus leading to the conclusion that LTM is stored semantically PAGE 132
What flashbulb memories?
Vivid, seemingly durable memories of specific, emotionally intense events that appear to last a lifetime
Memories "etched" or "burned" into our brain into our minds, like a snapshot
How are flashbulb memories studies?
Usually, after a large event such as MLK shooting, 9/11, and the Challenger explosion, they will ask people initially what their memory of the event was and then ask again a few months after and the researches see how much it has changed.
What is one study conducted in regards to flashbulb memory?
After the Challenger Explosion individuals gave their reports of their own circumstances at 1 day and 9 months after. Though both reports were detailed and confident, they did not match. In fact, 85% of the participants missed at least one "Who, what, where, when, or why" question and 25% missed all of such questions
What conclusions have been made regarding flashbulb memories?
- Flashbulb memories aren't special
- They are highly superior autobiographical memories due to emotional arousal and extra rehearsal
- They are supported by the fact that we have better recall of negatively salient memories
What aspects of an event assist in the creation and maintenance of flashbulb memories?
strong emotional reactions to an event tend to have more detailed memories of the event
Please describe Atkinson and Shiffran's Memory Model (Box Model).
In this model, information is received, processed, and stored in order. Information goes to our long term memory by encoding and rehearsal.
Please describe Baddeley's WM model.
In this model there are many different components with the Central Executive being the at the center. It also includes to Phonological Loop, Visuospatial Sketchpad, and Episodic Buffer
What is the function of the Central Executive in Baddeley's WM Model?
- Directs flow of information, traiges, and activity based
- Functions more as an attentional system than a memory system ("conscious awareness")
What is the function of a Phonological Loop?
Maintains and rehearses verbal and auditory information
What is the function of the Visuospatial Sketchpad?
Maintains and rehearse visual material
What is the function of the Episodic Buffer?
Temporary system for integrating information from different sources
What were the results of Baddeley's Dual Task Paradigm?
- If you load up one of the loops too much it'll be difficult to recall
- You tend to remember things better when you hear and see it at the same time
What study examined the duration of short term memory? Please explain.
Brown-Peterson Task; The participants were presented with 3 letters and then with a number and were asked to count backwards from that number by 3's out loud to prevent rehearsal. The length of time participants were asked to count backwards, greatly impacted their ability to recall the letters.
What study examined how we retrieve information from our short term memory? Please explain.
Sterberg conducted a study in which participants were given lists of letters to rehearse and encode. Then they were asked to recall if certain letters were on the list and found evidence that we retrieve our memories by using a serial exhaustive search because the decision time was the same for stimuli earlier and later on the lists.
What study examined the way short term memory is encoded?
In the memory span task, participants were given words and later asked to recognize the word amongst a list of other words. Because they mixed up words that sounded a like more often than anything else, it was concluded that our STM is encoded by auditory or in terms of sound.
What are the types of interference?
- Retroactive Interference
- Proactive Interference
- Release from proactive interference
What is retroactive interference?
When newer information hurts memory of older information
What is proactive interference?
Rehearsal of older information hurts recall of newer information
What is release of proactive interference?
When something in the middle catches one's attention
What were the conclusion of Bahrick's study on long term memory?
- After 5 years our memory decreases then decreases even more after 30 years
- We lose a connection between visual and verbal memories
- visual memories last longer than verbal memories
- recognition is easier than recall
What is the Dual Coding Theory?
Our mind has two separate memory systems, verbal and visual. If we encode things both verbally and visually we will be able to recall them easier
What are different ways that memory can be made easy for us?
- Encoding Specificity
- Spacing Effect
- State-Dependent Learning
- Schemas and Experience
What is an example of a mnemonic?
- Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally
- Never Eat Soggy Waffles
What is encoding specificty?
recalling information in same or similar context aids retrieval
What are mneumonics?
Specific, effortful techniques that aid memory retention and retrieval; usually pair verbal and visual information together
What is an example of encoding specificity?
studying in a cold room so you can retrieve info better since exam room will be cold
What is the spacing effect?
You remember information better if you space out your learning, compared to when you cram all at once
What is an example of the spacing effect?
studying for an exam over the course of a week rather than the night before
What is state-dependent learning?
when chemical or emotional states aid retrieval when paired at encoding and recall
Does marijuana participate in state-dependent learning?
Does alcohol participate in state-dependent learning?
only if not impaired
Does coffee participate in state-dependent learning?
not too much
How do moods participate in state-dependent learning?
negative moods are more salient when in negative mood and the same with positive moods
How do schemas and experiences help make memory easier for us?
Because we break up information that is meaningful and important to us in order to get the "gist" based on our past experiences
What is leveling changes?
deletion of writing styles, names, and/or specific information
What is sharpening?
adding more importance to information based on schema
What is rationalizing?
Trying to make sense of something by applying schemas
What is metamemory?
Thinking about your own memory
What study was conducted on metamemory and children?
Istomina conducted a Grocery Store Study with children between 3 and 8 years of age. Each child was given a 20 item grocery list, but only those of 8 years of age tried to use various techniques to aid in remembrance such as asking to write it down or only getting a few items at a time
What study was conducted concerning expertise in memory? What were the conclusions?
Chess Board Experiment where the pieces were first place in a logical way and then in a nonsensical one. When in logical way experts were able to remember where to place the pieces but when nonsensical, both experts and novices performed equally bad.
Same results with Mental Rotation Task with Tetris
Expertise aids in memory, but is not transferable to other tasks
What is procedural long-term memory?
memories for actions or procedures
What is declarative long-term memory?
knowledge, facts, ideas; anything that can be recalled and described in words