Define anatomy and distinguish it from physiology
- Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human
- body, while Physiology is the study of body function.
What are the subdivisions of anatomy?
- Gross Anatomy is the study of body structures that
- can be seen with the naked eye.
- Microscopic Anatomy / histology is the study of
- structures that are so small they can be seen only with a microscope.
What is a cell?
Cells are the smallest living unit inside the body.
Define tissue, organs and organ systems:
- Cells group together in the body to form
- tissues - a collection of similar cells that group together to perform a
- specialized function. An organ
- is a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning
- together for a common purpose. Organ systems are composed of two or more
- different organs that work together to provide a common function.
Describe the anatomical position with your own words
and state why it is important as a visual reference in the biomedical field:
- The body is assumed to be standing, the feet
- together, the arms to the side, and the head and eyes and palms of the hands
- facing forwards, the thumb points anteriorly. If everyone uses the same terminology, then it is easier to
- understand what each of us is trying to say.
- Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or
- the body; above.
- The head is superior to the abdomen.
- from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body.
- navel is inferior to the chin.
- or at the front of the body; in front of.
- breast bone is anterior to the spine.
- or at the back of the body; behind.
- heart is posterior to the breastbone.
- or at the midline of the body; on the inner side o
- The heart is medial to the
- Away from the midline of
- the body; on the outer side of
- The arms are lateral to the
- Closer to the origin of the
- body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
- The elbow is proximal to
- the wrist.
- Farther from the origin of
- a body part of the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
- The knee is distal to the
- Toward or at the body
- The skin is superficial to
- the skeletal muscles
- Away from the body surface,
- more internal
- The lungs are deep to the
What are the two main cavities found in the human body? Name the organs that are found in
- Dorsal Body Cavity - Subdivided into:
- 1) Cranial Cavity, which
- lies in the skull & encases the brain
- 2) & Vertebral Cavity,
- which encases the spinal cord.
- Ventral Body Cavity – Subdivided into:
- 1) A superior Thoracic
- Cavity, surround by ribs and muscles of chest wall
- 2) An inferior
- Abdominopelvic Cavity, surrounded by abdominal walls and pelvic girdle.
- Thoracic and abdominal cavities separated by diaphragm.
The diffusion of water molecules across a membrane
- Active transport requires energy.
- Carried out against the concentration gradient and hence requires energy.
- Active transport requires energy and moves particles up their concentration
- Passive transport requires no
- energy. For example, if the concentration of water is more outside the cell
- than inside, water will flow into the cell. Simply put, it is actually
- diffusion which occurs in passive transport and hence, no energy is required.
- Passive transport doesn't require energy and moves particles down their
- concentration gradient.
Mechanism by which large particles and macromolecules
- Mechanism by which substances move from cytoplasm
- to the outside of the cell.
- “Cell Eating”. Plasma membrane and cytoplasm
- (pseudopods) protrude and flow around some relatively large material, such as a
- clump of bacteria or cellular debris and engulf it.
- Many of the proteins associated
- with the plasma membrane are tightly bound to it. Because it is anchored in the
- plasma membrane of the cell, the heavy chain is called an integral membrane protein.
- These are more loosely associated with the
- membrane. Proteins associated noncovalently with integral membrane proteins are
- called peripheral membrane proteins.
- The double membrane of the nucleus enclosing DNA and any other genetic
- material in a eukaryotic cell is called the nuclear membrane. It
- separates the DNA from the cytosol.
- Nuclear pore complexes allow the transport of
- water-soluble molecules across the nuclear envelope.
- The nucleolus is a prominent sub-nuclear
- structure that is not bound by a membrane and resides within the nuclear
- The fluid contained within the nucleus of a eukaryote in which the
- chromosomes and nucleoli are found.
- Microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells, and
- are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption &
- The fine hairlike projections from certain cells such as those in the respiratory
- tract that sweep in unison and help to sweep away fluids and particles.
What is histology?
The anatomical study of the microscopic structure of animal and plant tissues
What is the main function of epithelial tissue?
- Protection; covers body surface or lines body
What is the main function of Connective Tissue?
- Supports and binds other tissues. Forms basis of
- skeleton (bone and cartilage), store and carry nutrients (fat tissue and
- blood), surround all the blood vessels and nerves of the body.
What is the main function of muscle tissue?
Brings about most types of body movements
What is the main function of nervous tissue?
- Main component of the nervous organs (brain,
- spinal cord, and nerves). Regulates body functions.
Where is simple squamous found?
- Kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, lining of
- heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels.
Where is simple cuboidal found?
- Kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of
- small glands, ovary surface.
Where is simple columnar found?
- Nonciliated type lines most of digestive tract.
- Ciliated types lines small bronchi, uterine tubes and some of the uterus.
Where is pseudostratified found?
- Nonciliated type lines male’s sperm carrying
- ducts, ciliated type lines the trachea and most of upper respiratory tract
Where is stratified squamous found?
- Nonkeratinized type forms the moist lining of
- esophagus, mouth and vagina. Keratinized type forms the epidermis of the skin.
Where is stratified cuboidal found?
- Largest ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands
- and salivary glands.
Where is stratified columnar found?
- Rare in body. Found in small amounts in male
- urethra and in large ducts of some glands.
Where is transitional found?
Lines the ureters, bladder and part of urethra
What are the lateral, basal, and
apical features commonly found in epithelial cells?
- Lateral feature:
- Epithelial cells connect to
- one another via their lateral membranes to form epithelial sheets that line
- cavities and surfaces throughout the animal body. Adhesion proteins, wavy contours of
- membranes of adjacent cells join in a tongue and groove gasion, and cell
- junctions all bind epithelial cells together.
- Basal feature:
- The basal surface rests on
- connective tissue. A thin, extracellular layer called the basement membrane
- forms between the epithelial and connective tissue.
- Apical feature:
- Microvilli (finger like
- projections and cilia, whip like projections)
How do epithelial tissues receive nutrients?
- Nutrients diffuse to epithelium from underlying connective tissues, which have
- abundant blood vessels.
What type of tissue is commonly found underneath
How are epithelial tissues classified?
By the number of layers and by the shape.
How does the shape of the epithelial cells relate to
the function? What about the numbers of layers?
- Shape: squamous are flat for diffusion, filtration. Columnar and cuboidal are found in tissues involved
- in secretion and absorption. Ciliated propel material. Transitional
- epithelial dome shaped cells stretch. The more the layers, the more
What are goblet cells? What is the function of the
product secreted by these cells?
- Goblet cells are glandular
- epithelial cells – found predominantly in the lining of the digestive and
- respiratory tracts – whose sole purpose is the secretion of mucus.
How many types of stratified squamous epithelia are
found in the human body? Compare and contrast them. Where are they found?
Keratinized (dry, epidermis) and Nonkeratinized (wet, esophagus, mouth and vagina).
Common features of connective tissue:
- Their cells are always separated from one
- another by a large amount of non living extracellular material called the
- extracellular matrix.
List and describe the function of the
different types of cells found in connective tissue:
Connective Tissue Proper:
- Connective Tissue Proper
- Fibroblasts (produces fibers), defense cells (immune
- system) and fat cells (store nutrients and energy reserve).
- Chondrocytes and chondroblasts actively secrete the matrix
- during cartilage growth.
- Bone Tissue
- Osteocytes and osteoblasts secrete collagen fibers and
- ground substance.
- Blood Tissue
- Red blood cells
- function as transport vehivles for cardiovascular system, carrying nutrients,
- wastes, respiratory gases etc.
What is the extra cellular matrix? And the ground
- Extracellular matrix is nonliving material that
- separates cells in connective tissue. Ground substance is the part of the
- extracellular matrix that holds tissue fluid (aka interstitial fluid).
- Jelly-like material.
What types of fibers are found in the
Areolar Connective Tissue has three types of fibers:
- Collagen Fibers
- Strongest and most abundant
- Allows CT to withstand tension.
- Reticular Fibers
- Short fibers cluster into networks
- Cover and support all structures bordering the CT.
- Elastic Fibers
- Long and thin, branch out to wide networks
- Function like rubber bands. Stretch.
What is the sub classification of the
connective tissue proper? Describe and give examples of location and
function for each subtype.
Connective Tissue Proper, Loose
- Underlies almost all epithelia of the body, surrounds
- small nerves and blood vessels.
- Support, binding, holding body fluids, defense, and
- storing nutrients.
- Fat; hypodermis
- Removes lipids from bloodstream after meals. Stores
- nutrients and energy ready fat
- Bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes
- The fibers form a soft skeleton (stroma) to support the
- lymphoid organs
What is the characteristic of the dense fibrous
- Contains more collagen than areolar connective
- tissue does. Can Resist Extremely strong pulling forces.
Compare and contract and give examples
of location of the dense regular and irregular connective tissue:
- Dense Regular CT
- Ligaments, tendons
- It provides great tensile strength to tissue.
- Dense Irregular CT
- Dermis of the skin
- Resists strong tensions from different directions.
Compare and contrast fibrocartilage,
hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage. Give examples of where these
types of cartilages can be found in the human body.
- Hyaline Cartilage
- Embryonic skeleton, covers ends of long bones, costal
- cartilages of ribs, nose, trachea and larynx.
- Supports and reinforces, resists compressive stress.
- Elastic Cartilage
- External Ear
- Maintains shape of a structure while allowing great
- Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joint
- Tensile strength with ability to absorb compressive shock.
Compare and contrast the shape and the
function of cells in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.
Where are these types of muscles found in the human body?
- Skeletal Muscle
- Skeletal muscles attached to bones
- Voluntary movement, locomotion
- Cardiac Muscle
- Walls of the heart
- Contacts and propels blood into the circulation.
- Smooth Muscle
- Walls of hollow organs
- Propels substances or objects (food, urine, a baby) along
- internal passageways. Involuntary.