ANT 113

  1. The way in which a society meets its need for subsistence is determined by a society's:

    A.  culture.
  2. The attitudes, beliefs, labor patterns and other factors that help determine how a society will subsist are called its:

    A.  culture core.
  3. The concept of adaptation is best described as:

    B.  the invention of new tools or modifying materials for new uses.
  4. An example of maladaptation is provided by:

    C.  presence of sickle-cell anemia in nonmalaria regions.
  5. A culture area can best be described as a:

    B.  geographic region in which several cultures follow a similar life pattern.
  6. The food-foraging subsistence pattern:

    C.  involved peoples from very early human societies to abut 10,000 years ago.
  7. The food-sharing practices of food-foraging societies are:

    A.  common.
  8. Features of social organization associated with food-foraging cultures include:

    A.  sexual division of labor, regular sharing of food, importance of the camp as a semipermanent center of social activity.
  9. According to the textbook and video program, sexual division of labor in food-foraging societies probably arose in part from:

    B.  biological differences between men and women.
  10. In a food-foraging culture, women generally:

    D.  provide the larger share of the diet from their gathering activities.
  11. The term egalitarian implies:

    D.  equality.
  12. Which of the following is NOT an egalitarian aspect of food-foraging cultures?

    B.  Women share the same tasks and equal responsibilities with men.
  13. Two words that best describe pastoralist cultures are:

    D.  nomadic and herders.
  14. The most significant result of the change from food foraging to food production was that:

    A.  the nature of human society began to undergo significant change.
  15. It is believed that the trainsition from food foraging to food production began:

    C.  9,000 to 11,000 years ago.
  16. The horticultural pattern of subsistence is characterized by all of the following features EXCEPT:

    B.  irrigation from canals.
  17. Horticultural cultivation of crops usually results in:

    C.  adequate food supplies but little surplus.
  18. Slash-and-burn horticulture is practiced by the:

    B.  Maya of the Yucatan.
  19. Maize, beans, squash and potatoes are typically grown in the:

    A.  dry areas in the Americas.
  20. The development through intensive agriculture that made possible the rise of nonindustrial cities was:

    B.  surplus food production.
  21. A stratified society, in which people were ranked according to their work or their family, first appeared in:

    A.  nonindustrial societies.
  22. The governmental structure of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan is best described as:

    C.  a huge bureaucracy managing social order, taxation, and storehouses.
  23. In addition to production, the essential parts of an economic system are:
    A. consumption and taxation.
    B. distribution and consumption.
    D. reciprocity and distribution.
    B. distribution and consumption.
  24. To produce goods, a nonindustrial society needs:

    B.  labor, technology and raw materials.
  25. In the division of labor by age found in nonindustrial societies:

    B.  both children and the elderly are likely to have important roles.
  26. The basis for sexual division of labor in traditional societies is related to:

    A.  cultural patterns.
  27. In sexually segregated societies:

    B.  a person of one sex would seldom perform a task normally done by the other.
  28. The technology of a nonindustrial society is reflected in part in its:

    A.  tools and artifacts.
  29. An example of technology typical of a horticultural society is the:

    C.  hoe.
  30. A system of reciprocity where neither the value of what is given is calculated nor the time of repayment specified is called:

    B.  generalized.
  31. The conditions essential for the establishment of a system of resistribution are:

    A.  a central administration and a surplus.
  32. The 'Big Man' feast is considered a leveling mechanism because it:

    C.  tends to distribute goods so that no one retains more than anyone else.
  33. Which of the following is NOT a function of a nonindustrial marketplace?

    C.  the display of wealth for social prestige.
  34. Which of the following institutions is similar to a nonindustrial marketplace?

    D.  a flea market.
  35. The history of business ventures such as a Western-style farming operations in third-world countries suggests that:

    C.  such projects often deprive much of the population of their means of livelihood.
  36. From a cross-cultural standpoint, all of the following statements about marriage are true EXCEPT for the statement that marriage:
    A. includes rights of sexual access.B. makes the wife elligible to bear children.C. is a contract between one man and one woman. D. is socially sanctioned.
    C. is a contract between one man and one woman.
  37. Although the incest taboo is:

    C.  found in some form in all societies, anthropologists do not have completely satisfactory explanations for its occurrence.
  38. One probable explanation for the practice of exogamy is that it:

    B.  helps to cement alliances between groups.
  39. The two most common forms of marriage in the world today are:

    A.  polygyny and monogamy.
  40. Polyandry is a marriage custom in which a:

    C.  wife has more than one husband.
  41. The marriage custom of levirate is best described as a:

    C.  widow marrying her dead husband's brother.
  42. The manner by which North Americans select their mates differs significantly from mate selection practices in traditional societies, in that North Americans:

    B.  select their own mates, rather than allowing their families to make such decisions.
  43. The purpose of bride price is to:

    C.  repay the bride's family for the economic loss of their daughter.
  44. Payment of a woman's inheritance to the husband at the time of marriage is called the:

    B.  dowry.
  45. Which of the following statements about divorce is TRUE?

    B.  Divorce in non-Western societies is a matter of great concern to the couple's families.
  46. One of the basic functions of the family is to:

    C.  nurture children.
  47. The basic residential unit that provides for functions such as production, consumption, inheritance and shelter is termed the:

    D.  household.
  48. The nuclear family is typically found in:

    D.  the United States and Canada.
  49. An economic environment in which the elderly become a burden rather than an asset favors development of:
    A. endogamous families.
    B. nuclear families.
    C. matrilineal families.
    D. extended families.
    B. nuclear families.
  50. One explanation for the existence of extended families in many cultures is that:A. raising children is more difficult in traditional societies.
    B. a lack of money or wealth makes it impossible for family members to leave.
    C. religious beliefs make it difficult for children to leave home.
    D. the need for a large labor pool and cooperation in economic activities keeps family members together.
    D. the need for a large labor pool and cooperation in economic activities keeps family members together.
  51. The residence pattern in which a woman leaves her family after marriage to live with the family in which her husband grew up is the:

    D.  patrilocal residence pattern.
  52. A distinct problem of nuclear families in Western industrialized societies such as the United States is:

    B.  isolation of spouses or single parents from the support of other relatives in dealing with family responsibilities.
  53. Kinship is a term most precisely used to refer to:

    B.  relatives.
  54. To be described as a descent group, the group must have:

    D.  an ancestor.
  55. One important function of descent groups in many nonindustrial societies is:

    C.  providing security and services for its members.
  56. A descent group that is a corporate group:

    B.  is a long-lasting organization that survives changes in membership.
  57. A descent group that traces its ancestors exclusively through the male or female line is called:
    A. a unilineal group.
    B. a patrilineal group.
    C. an ambilineal group.
    D. a matrilineal group.
    A. a unilineal group.
  58. In patrilineal descent groups:

    B.  group membership is determined through the male line.
  59. In matrilineal societies:

    C.  unsatisfactory marriages are more easily ended than in patrilineal societies.
  60. A descent system in which the matrilineal line confers some rights and the patrilineal line confers others is termed:

    B.  double descent.
  61. A common feature of lineages is that marriage:

    A.  with someone from another lineage is usually required.
  62. In clans, all members belong to a:

    D.  noncorporate descent group and claim descent from a common ancestor.
  63. In a society with moieties, the number of moieties is:

    C.  two.
  64. In a bilateral kinship system, the individual from whom relationships to a large number of relatives are traced is called:

    D.  ego.
  65. A kindred ends when:

    A.  ego dies.
  66. In kinship diagrams, the symbol triangle indicates:

    B.  a male.
  67. The principal purpose of kinship terminology systems is to:

    D.  indicate positions occupied by persons in a society.
  68. The kinship terminology system used by Anglo-Americans is the:

    B.  Eskimo system.
  69. In the Eskimo system of kinship terminology:

    D.  no distinction is made between maternal and paternal sisters and brothers or their children.
  70. In bilateral kinship, an individual is:

    A.  affiliated with a large number of relatives of both parents.
  71. In a bilateral kinship system, descent is traced through:

    B.  four grandparents.
  72. Bilateral kinship is typical of societies in which:

    A.  nuclear famililes predominate.
  73. Unilineal descent is commonly found in:

    A.  agricultural and horticultural societies.
  74. One characteristic of many societies that organize relationships according to bilateral kinship is:

    C.  mobility.
  75. A kindred includes:

    C.  all near relatives of a living person.
  76. One function performed by kindreds is to:

    A.  render assistance when requested.
Card Set
ANT 113
Multiple Choice Exam #2