Optics I

  1. Light rays travel in _______  lines. What happens when light rays can cross? 

    A light ray travels forever unless it interacts with ______ that causes the ray to change _______ or to be _______.
    • straight lines
    • They do not interact with each other. Two rays can cross without either being affected in any way
    • matter
    • direction
    • absorbed
  2. Light interacts with matter in 4 different ways. (List them)
    • At an interference between 2 materials 
    • Light can be reflected 
    • Light can be refracted 
    • Light can be both reflected and refracted
    • Within a material, light can be either scattered or absorbed
  3. An object is a source of light rays. Rays originate from _____ point on the object, and each point sends rays in _______ ________. The eye sees by focusing a bundle of ______. How/When does an eye sees an object
    • every point
    • all directions
    • rays
    • The eye sees an object when diverging bundles of rays from each point on the object enter the pupil and are focused to an image on the retina
  4. What are the two types of sources of light rays
    • Self luminous objects: directly create light rays
    • Reflective objects: reflect rays originating in self-luminous objects
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  6. Two types of reflection, name them
    • Specular Reflection: Reflection from a smooth surface
    • Diffuse Reflection: Reflection from a rough surface
  7. With specular reflection, the reflected rays are _______ to each other. _______ reflection is necessary for the formation of clear images from reflecting surfaces.
    • parallel
    • Specular
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  8. The reflected rays travel in a variety of directions. A surface behaves as a smooth surface as long as the surface variations are much ______ than the _______ of the light
    • smaller
    • wavelength
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  9. The normal is a line ________ to the surface. It is at the point where the incident ray strikes the ________. The incident ray makes an angle of θ1 with the normal. The reflected ray makes an angle θ1' with the normal. The incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal all lie in the same plane, and ____ = ____
    • perpendicular 
    • surface
    • θ1 = θ1'
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  10. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence: ____ = ____
    This relationship is called the _____ ____ ______. The path of a light ray is _________. (This property is useful for geometric constructions)
    • θ1' = θ1
    • Law of Reflection
    • reversible
  11. What are the two types of Reflecting Surface Mirrors. Specify any other classifications
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  12. Within the context of Optics, define the following: 
    Real object
    Virtual object
    s (or o or do) (also state the expected value for a real object vs virtual)
    • Object: source for light going through the optical element
    • Real object: a physical object
    • Virtual object: an image formed by a previous optical element 
    • s (or o or do): object distance. Distance between object and the optical element 
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  13. How is an Image formed?
    Whats the difference between a real image and a virtual image?
    Define s' (or i or di) (also state the expected value for a real image vs virtual)
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  14. Define: 
    Focal point 
    State the context for:
    Object height
    Image height 
    When is the image upright vs inverted?
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  15. Define and state the formula for Lateral magnification, m (2)
    When is this image (in terms of m) upright, inverted, shrunk and enlarged
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  16. What is the difference between a real and virtual image (also give examples of each)
    Virtual image: image which appears to be formed somewhere behind the mirror, because light rays appear to be diverging from the location of that image behind the mirror. In reality they aren't because no light reaches behind the mirror. Every plane mirror will form a virtual image (not real)

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    Real image: image which appears to be formed on the same side as the object because light rays converge after reflection (of the the object) from the mirror. The light rays actually converge on the image in front of the mirror and diverge behind the image hence we call it a real image. Concave mirrors can produce real images, but they will always be inverted

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  17. Label the front side of the mirror 
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  18. Your eye intercepts only a very _______ ______ of all reflected rays. The rays from P and Q that reach your eye ______ from different areas of the mirror. 
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    Because the triangles PQR and P'QR are congruent, |s| = ___ and h = ___
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    • small fraction 
    • reflect 
    • |s|=|s'| and h = h'
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  19. For an Image formed by plane mirror
    Upright: h' ___ 0, m ___ 0
    Right and left are ______
    Behind the mirror: s' ___ 0 (i.e. virtual image)
    Same size as object: |m| = ___, thus s = ____
    • h' > 0, m > 0
    • reversed
    • s' < 0 (i.e. virtual image)
    • |m| = 1, thus s = -s'
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  21. Spherical mirrors are shaped like sections of a sphere, and may be reflective on either the _______ (_______) or _______ (_______). Label the type of mirror and normal to surface on both
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    • inside (concave) or outside (convex)
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  22. If the curvature is small, the focus is much more _______; the ______ ______ is where the rays converge. Label the diagram 
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    • precise
    • focal point 
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  23. A spherical mirror has the shape of a segment of sphere. The mirror focuses incoming ________ rays to a point, called the _______ point (__) of the mirror. 
    Define Focal length and state the formula:
    Label the diagram (3) state the type of mirror and the what the rays do at the focal point?
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    • parallel rays
    • focal point (F)
    • Focal length: The focal point is a distance f from the mirror: f = R/2
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  24. State the mirror equation:
    1/f = (2)
    s' = 
    State the formula for Magnification:
    m = (2)
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  25. A concave mirror has the light reflected from the _____, or ______, side of the curve sometimes called the _______ mirror. What happens to the rays at the focal point 
    R ___ 0
    State the formula/conditions for f
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    • inner, or concave side
    • converging mirror
    • At the focal point, rays converge
    • R > 0
    • f = R/2 > 0
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  26. A convex mirror is sometimes called a _______ mirror. The light reflects from the ______, _______ side. The rays from any point on the object ______ after reflection as though they were coming from some point ______ the mirror. The image is ______ (why?)
    What happens to the rays at the focal point?
    R ____ 0
    State the formula/conditions for f
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    • diverging mirror 
    • outer, convex side
    • diverge
    • behind
    • virtual, because the reflected rays only appear to originate at the image point 
    • R < 0
    • f = R/2 < 0
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  27. When drawing an image, there 3 types of Incident or Reflected rays that can be drawn, list them:
    Incident Ray (3)
    Reflected Ray (3)
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    **Only two rays required to locate an image, don't do more
  28. For concave mirrors, s > R when the object is located so that the center of curvature lies between the _______ and a concave mirror surface, the image is _____, _____ and ______ in size
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    • object and a concave mirror 
    • real, inverted and reduced in size 
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  29. For concave mirrors s < f when the object is located between the _____ _____ and a concave mirror surface, the image is ______, _______ and ______
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    • focal point 
    • virtual, upright and enlarged
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  30. Ray Diagram for Convex mirror
    When the object is in front of a convex mirror, the image is _______, _______ and ______ in size
    s __ 0
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    • virtual, upright, and reduced
    • s > 0, and a real number 
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  31. Problem Solving: Spherical Mirrors (4-story)
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  34. For the wave under reflections, all images are laterally ______. Real object must be located in the _____ side, s ___ 0
    • laterally inverted 
    • incident 
    • s > 0
  35. 1. Flat mirror/Plane mirror
    R → ___, f → ___

    S' ___ 0, s' = ___ < ___
    |M| = ___ and M ___ 0
    Image: _______, ______ and ______ size
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  36. 2. Spherical Mirror
    State the formulas for both Concave and Convex mirrors:
    f (conditions for f and R)
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Card Set
Optics I
Optics pt I