Neuro Ch 9 Memory

  1. short term/working memory
    memory where info is temporarily maintained in mind while it is being used to perform some task, but is rapidly lost when attention shifts elsewhere
  2. subcomponents of working memory
    • visuospatial sketchpad: keeps visual images in mind
    • phonological loop: keeps words, sentences, and numbers in mind
  3. long term memory
    • encode, store, and retrieve information over long periods of time
    • greater capacity than working memory 
    • divided into implicit and explicit
  4. implicit memory
    • skills and learning that can occur without conscious awareness 
    • nondeclarative: can't verbally express these memories (e.g. playing piano or tying shoes)
  5. procedural memories
    • implicit memory
    • memories for how to perform skills or habits
    • acquired through repition and practice
  6. priming
    • implicit memory 
    • form of unconscious memory in which past experiences can influence a response to a sensory stimulus 
    • can be perceptual or conceptual
  7. classical conditioning
    • implicit memory
    • a form of memory in which a previously neutral stimulus gains the ability to elicit a behavioural response, after becoming associated with another stimulus that naturally elicits that response
  8. operant conditioning
    • implicit memory 
    • a form of learning in which a behaviour is made more likely by providing a reinforce (reward) after it occurs or made less likely by providing a punishment after it occurs
  9. nonassociative learning
    • long term strengthening or weakening of a response after repeated exposures to stimulus 
    • habituation and sensitisation
  10. explicit memory
    • information that can be consciously recalled and expressed 
    • declarative: things you know you know, and can be talked about
  11. episodic memory
    • explicit memory 
    • memories for past events in you life associated with spatial context (where), temporal context (when and sequence), perceptual detail (what things looked like, who was there, how felt)
  12. divisions of episodic memory
    • recognition memory - ability to tell that you have seen or experienced something before 
    • recollection: retrieval of qualitative details realted to previous experience
    • familiarity: sense of having seen something before, without an ability to bring to mind qualitative details about the prior experience
  13. semantic memory
    • explicit memory memories for facts about the world 
    • memories for concepts rather than specific percepts
    • semantic memories are independent of any particular sensory modality 
    • organised based on meaning
  14. disorders of explicit memory
    • Alzheimer's disease (episodic memory before semantic memory)
    • semantic dementia (semantic before episodic)
  15. amnesia
    • damage to the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex results in amnesia
    • retrograde: inability to retrieve episodic memories for events that occurred prior to brain injury
    • anterograde: inability to form new episodic memories after injury
  16. spatial memory
    an extensive body of research on the hippocampus comes from non human animal models
  17. place cells
    were discovered in the rodent hippocampus these are cells that fire when the animal is a particular location in its environment
  18. theories of hippocampal function
    (what theories agree on)
    • memories represented as a pattern of activity in the brain 
    • the system of brain regions active when memory is encoded
    • hippocampus serves as a pointer to perceptual systems, indexing perceptual features of the memory 
    • some parts of the network active during memory encoding reactivated when memory retrieved
  19. declarative theory
    • hippocampus critical for all forms of declarative memory 
    • hippo has time limited role in memory: involved initially but gradually memories become independent and consolidated into cortical areas
  20. multiple trace theory
    • important for semantic and episodic memory
    • only semantic memories become independent of the hippocampus over time
    • true episodic memories accompanied by mental time travel always depend on hippocampus
    • semantic and semanticised episodic memories gradually become supported by the cortex as a result of repeated retrieval and rehearsal
  21. dual process theory
    • the hippocampus is critical for
    • recollection: retrieval of specific details about the events of a particular memory, including where and when those events took place
    • medial temporal lobe cortex critical for assessing familiarity in absence of recollection
  22. relational theory
    hippocampus critical for storing relations/associations between elements of events in contrast to storing just individual items
  23. cognitive map theory
    • hippocampus evolved to create and store spatial maps for navigation, orientation, finding resources
    • this system has been co opted to create and store episodic memories as well (because they're spatial)
  24. prospection and amnesia
    patients with amnesia not only have difficulty remembering the past, but also have difficulty imagining new experiences
  25. default mode network
    • network of brain regions linked to episodic memory and imagine, but also active when people are resting quietly 
    • default mode involves memory retrieval, introspection, mind wandering, self reflection
  26. memory distortions
    • Memory is falliable: we all make errors in remembering even when we are fairly confident
    • memory is reconstructive
  27. confabulation
    • unintentional production of false or distorted recollections or narratives, often in the face of contradictory evidence
    • may be inability to inhibit currently irrelevant memories in favour of ones that are currently relevant
  28. provoked confabulation
    healthy people, uninjured brains, when they're pressured to remember details of memory beyond their ability to recall it accurately
  29. spontaneous confabulations
    • generated with no external cues, accompanied by strong conviction, may be acted upon 
    • constructed memories containing elements of the past but for the wrong situation at hand
  30. misattribution
    attributing an idea or recollection to the wrong source (wrong time, place, or person)
  31. suggestibility
    false memories can be created by providing a fictitious suggestion about a past experience, then encouraging elaboration of that false memory
  32. hebbian learning
    • cells that fire together wire together
    • evidence from synaptic connections can be modified as a result of the activity history of the cells involved
  33. long term potentiation
    • long lasting increases in synaptic strength that are induced when a presynaptic cell consistently activates along with a postsynaptic cell
    • many postsynaptic membranes contains NMDA receptors, which are glutamate receptors
  34. long term depression
    long lasting decreased synaptic sgregnth that are induced when a presynaptic cell and postsynaptic cell are not consistently activated at the same time
  35. synaptic plasticity
    • other mechanisms important for memeory formation
    • neurogenesis: production of new neurons
    • dentritic spines: tiny protrusions from dendrites, which may undergo structural changes with experience
Card Set
Neuro Ch 9 Memory
cognitive neuroscience midterm