1. When does sepsis arise?
    body's response to an infection injuries its own tissues and organs
  2. what can sepsis lead to?
    • shock 
    • multiple organ failure 
    • death
  3. what is sepsis?
    a life threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection
  4. what is suspected sepsis?
    used to indicate people who might have sepsis and require face to face assessment and consideration of urgent intervention
  5. what is sepsis most likely to develop from?
  6. what are some common sources of sepsis?
    • meningitis 
    • pneumonia 
    • UTI 
    • cellulitis 
    • infected wound 
    • device related infection e.g. catheter, IV 
    • infection can be suspected but source not obvious
  7. how many people die from sepsis every year?
    about 44,000
  8. how much are long term complications from sepsis due to delayed diagnosis costing the UK economy every year?
    15.6 billion
  9. how much more likely are you to die from sepsis than ACS or stroke?
    6 times more likely
  10. who is at risk of sepsis?
    • >75  years 
    • frail 
    • diabetes 
    • weak immune system 
    • recent surgery 
    • recently had a serious illness
  11. what women are at risk of sepsis?
    • just given birth or recently been pregnant
    • inc miscarriage or abortion
  12. what aged babies are at risk of sepsis?
    • younger than 1 year 
    • born prematurely 
    • mothers has an infection while she was pregnancy
  13. what are pt receiving chemotherapy?
  14. what is step one in recognising sepsis?
    • Does the pt look unwell? 
    • calculate NEWS score
  15. what is step 2 of recognising sepsis?
    confirm suspicion or evidence of infection
  16. what are the signs and/or symptoms of infection you would be looking out for for step 2 of recognising sepsis?
    • Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)/ LRTI 
    • meningitis 
    • pneumonia 
    • UTI 
    • abdominal pain and Diarrhoea & Vomiting 
    • cellulitus 
    • soft tissue infection/ infected wound 
    • device related infection 
    • hidden source e.g. pressure sores
  17. what neurological symptoms may there be?
    • new confusion 
    • headaches 
    • dizziness
  18. what respiratory/ cardiovascular may there be?
    • cough +/- sputum 
    • chest pain, palpitations 
    • raised respiratory rate or effort. SOB (SOBOE)
  19. what gastrointestinal may there be?
    • nausea/ vomiting, altering bowel habits 
    • abdominal pain 
    • abdominal distension/ localized tenderness
  20. what genito-urinary may there be?
    • discharge/ STD 
    • UTI- loin pain on urination, urgency, frequency, back, back pain
  21. what musculo- skeletal may there be?
    hot painful joint +/- non weight bearing
  22. what are other signs and symptoms?
    • dental problems and/or sinus infection 
    • foreign travel 
    • exposure to sick contacts 
    • cellulitis and wounds 
    • diabetic foot and ulcers 
    • purpuric rash 
    • burns 
    • fatigue 
    • weight loss 
    • reduced appetite
  23. what is step 3 of recognistion of sepsis?
    if any one of the following flags are present, red flags sepsis is present
  24. what are the red flags for sepsis?
    • RR ≥25  per min 
    • HR >130 
    • SBP <90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure <65 mmHg
    • oxygen needed to keep spo2 ≥ 92% 
    • NEWS ≥ 5
    • response to voice pain or is unresponsive 
    • mottled, ashen or cyanotic 
    • long term steroids 
    • anuria in the 18 hours 
    • recent chemotherapy
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