Chapter 4 Integumentary

  1. Define integumentary system?
    • Covers the entire body
    • Meets mucous membranes
    • Composed of skin and it's derivatives: hair,
    • Nails, sweat, oil, mammary glands
    • (cutaneous membrane)
  2. What is the function of the integumentary system?
    • Physical protection
    • Regulation of body temperature
    • Excretion
    • Nutrition-vitamin D
    • Sensation
    • Immune defense
  3. Name the two primary parts of the integumentary system?
    • Cutaneous membrane (skin)
    • Accessory Structures
  4. The cutaneous membrane (skin) contains what three parts?
    • Epidermis (upon)
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis (below)
  5. What three structures make up the accessory structures?
    • Hair
    • Nails
    • Glands
  6. Where is the loose connective tissue, areolar located?
    Directly underneath the epidermis
  7. What is the dense irregular connective tissue?
    • "Little net"
    • Collagen fibers
  8. What type of epithelium is the epidermis?
    Stratified squamous
  9. Name the cells of the epidermis?
    • Keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Merkel cells
    • Langerhans cells
  10. What are the function of Merkel cells? What type of cell is it?
    • They allow the sensation of touch
    • Nerve cells
  11. What is the function of Langerhans cells within the cutaneous membrane?
    • Phagocytosis
    • Looking of pathogens
  12. What is the function of melanocytes withing the cutaneous membrane?
    • Pigment producting (fixed connective tissue proper)
    • Prevents U.V. damage
  13. What are the most abundant cells within the cutaneous membrane?
    • Keratinocytes
    • Form 4-5 layers
    • Produce Keratin
  14. From the basal lamina (basement membrane) name the layers of epithelium?
    • Stratum Germinativum (basale)
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Lucidum
    • Stratum Corneum
  15. What cells do the stratum germinativum contain?
    • Basal cells (large stem cells)- mitosis
    • attached to basal lamina
    • Melanocytes-melanin
    • Merkel cells
  16. What cells do the stratum spinosum contain?
    • Daughter cells-kerantinocytes
    • Langerhans cells-immune system
    • Melanocytes
  17. What cells do the stratum granulosum contain?
    • Large amounts of keratin and
    • Keratohyalin granules cells die-
    • tight interlocked layer of keratin fibers
  18. Where is stratum lucidum found? What is the function?
    • Only in thick skin
    • Palms, soles of feet flattend
    • Packed with keratin; glassy
    • Extra protection and water resistent
  19. What cells do the stratum corneum contain?
    • Surface layer of flat, dead cells
    • Keratinzed
    • Surface coated with glands
    • Sweat and oil
  20. How many days does the skin move from germinativum to corneum?
    15-30 days
  21. How long does the skin stay at the stratum corneum? Why?
    • 2 weeks
    • It's moving away from the nutrient supply
  22. What is Dermal Papillae?
    Finger prints, grip
  23. Name the two layers of the dermis?
    • Papillary
    • Reticular layer
  24. What is within papillary layer of the dermis?
    • Loose connective tissue (areolar)
    • Blood capillaries
    • Free nerve endings (sensation/pain)
    • Dermal papillae-cone shaped (finger prints)
  25. Where is the papillary layer of dermis located? How much of the dermis does it make up?
    • Directly under the epidermis
    • 1/5 of the dermis
  26. What does the reticular layer of the dermis contain? How much of the dermis does it account for?
    • Collagen fibers and dense irregular connective tissue
    • Blood vessles, hair folicles, nerves, sweat, glands
    • Oil glands
    • 4/5th
  27. What is the function of the hypodermis? What does it contain?
    • Stabilize the skin-independent movement
    • Fat cells (adipocytes)
    • Elastic
    • Large arteries and veins-hypodermic needles
    • (collagen fibers from dermis extend down to this layer)
  28. What are hair follicles? What is their function?
    • Epidermal structure
    • Protects scalp from UV light
    • Cushions a blow to the head
    • Insulation for skull
    • Guard entrances to the nostrils and external ear canal
    • Eyelashes
    • Sensory base of hair shaft=early warning system
    • Arrector pili elevates hair
  29. What gland surrounds every hair follicle?
    • Sebaceous gland
    • (looks like cauliflower)
  30. Define sebaceous glands?
    • Waxy, oily secretion into
    • Hair follicles (holocrine)
  31. What is the purpose of sebum?
    Lubricantion and inhibits growth of bacteria.
  32. What are the two sudoriferous glands?
    • Merocrine (eccrine)
    • Apocrine
  33. What is the function and purpose of the merocrine secretion of sweat?
    • Numerous, widely distributed secretion 99% water
    • Thermoregulation
    • Excretion
    • Protection
  34. Where are apocrine glands located? When are they activated?
    • Groin, nipples, armpits
    • Begin secreting at puberty
    • May contain pheromones
    • Viscous, cloudy, odorous secretion-bacteria
  35. What happens to the apical portion of an apocrine cell?
    Pinches off and enters the lumen of the gland
  36. What does holocrine mean?
    Membrane rupturing
  37. Define cancer
    Abnormal cell mass
  38. What are the two types of cancer? Define them.
    • Benign-does not spread
    • Malignant-metastasized (moves) to other parts of the body
  39. What is the ABCD rule?
    • A-Asymmetry. Two sides of pigmented mole do not match
    • B-Border Integrity. Borders of mole are not smooth
    • C-Color. Different colors in pigmented area
    • D-Spot is larger then 6mm in diameter
Card Set
Chapter 4 Integumentary
Integumentary system