Chapter 5 Abnormal psychology

  1. What does it mean when a researcher uses a prospective research design?
    Sometimes called follow-forward study, supposed causes are assessed in the present, and subjects are followed longitudinally to see if the hypothesized effects develop over time. Scientists can asses a range of predictions more thoroughly and more objectless than in follow back studies.
  2. Which condition most likely to be comorbid with major depressive disorder?
    Anxiety disorder- Among people who it the diagnostic criteria for major depression at some point during their lies, 60 percent also qualify for a diagnosis of at least one anxiety disorder.
  3. When it comes to suicide, while females more often attempt suicide and males more often what?
    complete the suicide, because men and boys are more likely to use violent and lethal methods such s firearms and hanging.
  4. What disorder is associated with weight loss, worthlessness, insomnia and problems concentrating?
    Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)
  5. How many episodes is a person likely to have in his lifetime of major depression?
    Most depressive patients will have at least two depressive episodes. The number of lifetime episodes is five or six.
  6. What are the two response styles emphasized by Nolen-Hoeksema (in research designed to understand duration and severity of depression)?
    Ruminative style- turning their attention inward, contemplating the causes and implications of their sadness. Writing in a diary or talking extensively with a friend. ( has longer episodes of depression and more common for women) 

    Distracting style- diverting themselves from their unpleasant mood with hobbies, sports, and other activities.
  7. If a woman is diagnosed with a mood disorder with postpartum onset, what do you know concerning her having given birth?
    It begins four weeks after childbirth.
  8. In looking at Durkheim’s classification of suicides, it focused on a person’s social circumstances in terms of high and low levels of social what?
    Social integration and regulation
  9. List mood disorders from highest degree of heritability to the smallest degree of heritability.
    • Bipolar disorders- 80%
    • Major Depressive disorders - 50%
  10. What is the term for the pattern of observable behaviors, such as facial expression, that area associated with emotions. It's also expressed through the pitch of voices and with hand and body movements.
    Affect
  11. What are side effects possible when prescribing some SSRIs to children?
    There's a risk of violent and suicidal behavior.
  12. What term is used to describe a severe type of depression and represents a subtype of depression that is caused by different factors than those that are responsible for other forms of depression?
    Melancholia
  13. In order to meet the criteria for this disorder, the patient must either 1) lose the feeling of pleasure associated with all or almost all activities or 2) lose the capacity to feel better, even temporarily- when something good happens. They must also experience at least three of the following: 1) The depressed mood feels distinctly different  from the depression a person would feel after the death  of a loved one  2) the depression is most often worst in the morning ) the person awakens early at least two hours before usual 4) marked psychomotor retardation or agitation 5) significant loss of appetite or weight loss and 6) excessive or inappropriate guilt.
    Melancholia
  14. If someone has an episode of depression and then an episode of mania a year later, what is his diagnosis?
    Bipolar disorder
  15. What is the average age for the onset of depressive disorder?
    32
  16. What country are somatic symptoms (headaches, sleep disorder, lack of energy) of depression more likely seen?
    China
  17. What did Brown and Harris find in their study linking depression and stressful life events?What characteristics of a stressful life did Brown and Harris identify as more likely to lead to depression?
    A special class of circumstances - those involving major losses of important people or roles- seems to play a crucial role in precipitating major depression, especially a person's first life time episode. Severe events- those that are threatening and have long term consequences for the woman's adjustment- increase the probability that a women will become depressed. But the ordinary hassles and difficulties of every day living do not seem to lead to the onset of depression.
  18. What is the estimated heritability for depressive disorder?
    Close to 50%
  19. What does brain imaging show with activity of the prefrontal cortex in depressed patients?
    Depression is often associated with abnormal patterns of activity as well as structural changes in various brain regions. Some areas show decreased activity which is involved in planning that is guided by anticipation of emotion. A person who has a deficit of this type might have motivational problems, such as an inability to works toward  a pleasurable goal. Other areas of the PFC have found to show abnormally elevated levels of activity in depressed people. This inhibits inappropriate behaviors and helps the person ignore immediate rewards while working towards long-term goals. Overactivty might be associated with prolonged experience of negative emotion.
  20. Name neurotransmitters.
    serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
  21. What do cross-cultural studies of psychopathology suggest concerning depression?
    Cross-cultural studies have shown that in some non-western societies somatic symptoms are the most prominent symptoms of depression. Many of these aspects of mood disorder are seen in animals.
  22. What prescription medication for depression restricts him from eating foods like cheese and chocolate, among others?
    Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
  23. What are the effects of ECT on a person’s memory?
    Reviews of the research evidence indicate that ECT-induced changes in memory and other cognitive functions are almost always short lived, and ECT does not induce loss of neurons or theory changes in brain structure.
  24. What is the first choice for treating bipolar disorders?
    Medication is the most important method of treatment for bipolar disorders, but psychotherapy can be an effective supplement to biological intervention.
  25. What is the most common stressor in suicide, according to Schneidman?
    The common stressor in suicide is frustrated psychological needs. People with high standards and expectations are especially vulnerable to ideas of suicide when progress towards these goals is suddenly frustrated. These people view themselves as worthless, incompetent, or unlovable.
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Chapter 5 Abnormal psychology
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chapter 5 abnormal psychology
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