General Concepts of Anatomy 2

  1. aorta
    • a. Major elastic artery (elasticity of wall
    • propagates pulse)

    • b. Conducts blood
    • to distributing arteries whose contractible smooth muscle wall can direct
    • (preferentially distribute) blood to desired areas
  2. aortic branches from arch
    • brachiocephalic : (right common carotid- head and neck, right subclavian- upper limb)
    • left common carotid
    • left subclavian
  3. external carotid artery
    distributes blood to face, scalp, and deep face
  4. interrnal carotid artery
    distributes blood to brain, eyes
  5. aortic branches from descending portion
    • a) Parietal branches to the thoracic and
    • abdominal body wall, i.e., intercostal aa., lumbar aa.

    • b) Visceral branches to the organs of the thorax
    • and abdomen, i.e., celiac a., superior mesenteric a.,
    • inferior mesenteric a.
  6. common venous characteristics
    • contain valves to regulate flow with gravitational effects
    • thin walls
    • large diameter
    • superficial (temp regulation)
    • deep (parallel arterial system)
    • exist as plexuses in certain regions
    • depend on milking axn of surrounding muscles
  7. jugular vein
    return from head and neck
  8. subclavian v
    return from upper limb
  9. brachiocephalic vv
    formed by junction of jugular and subclavian
  10. superior vena cava (SVC)
    • formed by junction of R and L brachiocephalic
    • empties into right atrium
  11. common iliac cc
    return from lower limbs and pelvis via external and internal iliac vv
  12. external iliac cc
    return from lower limbs
  13. internal iliac
    return from pelvis
  14. IVC inferior vena cava
    • formed by union of left and right common iliac vv
    • parallels abdominal aorta on right
    • empties into right atrium
  15. pulmonary vv
    return OXYgenated blood from lungs to left heart
  16. portal system
    • has NO valves
    • system of veins that begins and ends in capillaries
    • hepatic and hypothalamic-hypophyseal portals
  17. hepatic portal system
    • drains all organs of digestion to spleen and liver
    • begins in capillaries of organs of digestions and sinusoids of spleen
    • ends in hepatic venous sinusoids
    • takes breakdown priducts of digestion to liver for storgage and synthesis
    • delivers old RBC to liver for bile synthesis
  18. hypothalamic-hypophysea portal system
    • begins in capillaries of hypthalamus of brain
    • ends in pituitary gland
    • delivers relesing hormones from hypothalamus to pituitary to stimulate release of pituitary hormines into bloodstream
  19. vertebral venous plexuses
    • 4 spearate venous channels
    • course full length of vertebral column
    • freely interconnect
    • approx 750 mL
    • POSITIVE fx: maintains brain O2 gradient (consciousness) by providing alt pathway for venous return to heart
    • NEGATIVE fx: provides route for metastasis of malignant pelvic cancers to seed distant areas of body due to many anastomotic connections and NO valves to direct flow
  20. trubutaries
    small veins which coalesce to form larger veins, towards heart
  21. circumflex vessels
    encircle a structure, usually a bone
  22. collateral vesssels
    a network of small arteries paralleling larger arteries which can maintain circulation if the main artery becomes obstructed
  23. anastomosis
    union or communication of 2 vessels without teh presence of intervening capillaries; may be arterial/venous/arteriovenous
  24. vena comitans
    arteries and veins most often travel together as named pairs; vein is named for the artery with which it travels
  25. general characteristics of lymphatics
    • return tissue fluids from somatic/visceral regions to the blood vscular system
    • intermittent nodes filter foreign matter and assist in monitoring immune responses
  26. distribution of lymphatic system
    extensive plexifirm channels located in dermis, lining of GI, beneath epithelial surfaces, joint capsules

    decreased or absent in areas of scant blood supply (epidermis, articular cartilage, cornea, brain, spinal cord)
  27. structure of lymphatic systems
    • a. Blind ending endothelial capillaries begin in
    • tissue spaces of subcutaneous regions,
    • the connective tissue of organs and parallel the course of arteries and veins.

    • b. Increase in size from .5 mm (lymphatic
    • capillary) to up to 6 mm (thoracic duct).

    • c. Generally named for the arteries they
    • parallel
  28. right lymphatic duct
    drains lymph from right side of head, thorax, and right upper limb via confluence of right jugular/right brochomediastinal/right subclavian lymph trinks into the right jugulouvenous angle
  29. right jugulovenous angle
    junction of right internal jugular and right subclavian jugular vv
  30. thoracic duct
    drains the lymphatic channels via lumbar trunks (pelvis and lower limbs), intestinal trunk, intercostal lymph trunks, left brochomediastinal trunk, and left subclavian/jugular trunks inot left jugulovenous angle
  31. left jugulovenous angle
    left internal and left subclavian veins merge
  32. mechanisms of lymph flow
    assisted by mm action (up to 3 L of lymph returned to venous side of vascular system daily)

    nutrients from digetsion (mostly fats), not transported by hepatic, delivered vua thoracic duct

    lymphatic capillaries
  33. lymphatic capillaries
    macromolecular proteins in the interstitium are actively picked up by lymph capillaries, creating gradient that moves tissue fluid from interstitum to lymphatic capillary
  34. neurovascular bundles
    nerves, arteries, veins, and lymphatics which distribute to the same region, course together and are wrapped in connective tissue neurovascular sheath
Card Set
General Concepts of Anatomy 2
vascular anatomy, lymphatics