Trauma

  1. CHEST TRAUMA
    What does FLAPS stand for?
    • Feel (chest walls for sweeling, deformity)
    • Look (for subtle changes)
    • Auscultate (Lateral chest and anterior armpit)
    • Percuss
    • Search (for wounds and blood/fractures)
  2. CHEST TRAUMA
    What does TWELVE stand for?
    • Tracheal elevation
    • Wounds
    • Emphysema (under the skin)
    • Laryngeal crepitus
    • Venous engorgement
    • Exclude: Pneumothorax, Haemothorax, Flail Chest.
  3. HANDOVER
    What does SBAR stand for?
    • Situation (me, P/C, any concerns)
    • Background (HxPC, MHx, DHx, SFHx)
    • Assessment (Obs, O/E)
    • Recommendations (include requests and read-back)
  4. TRANSPORT
    What does CATMIST stand for?
    • Call sign
    • Age
    • Time of injury
    • MOI
    • Injury found
    • Signs (vital signs)
    • Treatment given
  5. CHEST TRAUMA
    What can get injured?
    Heart, blood vessels, lungs, airways, soft tissue, bones, spinal cord, liver, kidneys, spleen.
  6. CHEST TRAUMA
    What are the important checks for breathing?
    • Expose the chest!
    • Basic obs - RR, SPO2.
    • Look for wounds
    • Look for symmetrical breathing
    • Look at the neck
    • Listen to the lungs
    • Feel for any deformities or swelling
  7. CHEST TRAUMA
    What are the signs and symptoms?
    • Deformity, bruising, swelling.
    • Resp rate - lack of, fast, slow.
    • SOB
    • Shallow respirations.
    • Use of accessory muscles
    • Emphysema under skin.
    • Pain
    • Signs of clinical shock.
    • Anxiety
    • LOC
  8. CHEST TRAUMA
    What treatment options?
    • Oxygen
    • Wound dressings - consider Russell Chest Seal and Nightingale Dressing.
    • Analgesia
    • Assist ventilations
    • Position patient
    • Paramedic intervention?
  9. CHEST TRAUMA
    What are the signs and symptoms / pathophysiology of fractured ribs?
    • Inadequate breathing.
    • Blood loss.
    • Damage to soft tissue including lungs, leading to secondary injury.
  10. CHEST TRAUMA
    What is the pathophysiology / signs and symptoms of a fractured sternum?
    • Indicates SIGNIFICANT chance of other major injuries.
    • The force required to break it means other organs or bones may be injured.
    • Time critical.
  11. CHEST TRAUMA
    Signs and symptoms / Pathophysiology of Flail Chest?
    • Paradoxical chest movment
    • Two or more ribs broken in two or more places.
    • Likelihood of lung injury or bruising.
  12. CHEST TRAUMA
    Pathophysiology and signs/symptoms of a pneumothorax?
    • Air in the pleural cavity.
    • Can be life threatening.
    • Puts pressure on the lung causing it to collapse. 
    • Eventually causes other structures to displace (eg trachea).
    • Puts pressure on blood vessels returning blood to the heart, and becomes an obstructive shock. 
    • Open pneumothorax - can see a sucking wound as thoracic pressure changes and air is drawn into the pleural space. 
    • Hypoxia 
    • Tension pneumothorax - air enters the pleural cavity but cannot escape, occupying space (as above)
  13. CHEST TRAUMA
    Signs / symptoms / pathophysiology of a haemothorax?
    • Blood in the pleural cavity.
    • Usually from penetrating trauma injuring major blood vessels. Can be from blunt trauma which shears.
    • Blood fills the pleural cavity and takes up space usually occupied by lungs and they collapse. 
    • Hypoxia
    • Hypovolaemia.
  14. CHEST TRAUMA
    Signs / symptoms / pathophysiology of Cardiac Tamponade?
    • Excessive fluid in the pericardial sac, compresses the heart, limiting it's ability to pump.
    • Usually a penetrating wound to the heart.
    • Clinical shock is a result.
    • Distended veins.
    • LOC.
  15. PELVIC TRAUMA
    What are the causes?
    • High-energy transfer from RTCs, falls from height, crushing.  
    • Also can be pathogenic - in the elderly with osteoporosis, or receiving radiotherapy.
  16. PELVIC TRAUMA
    Signs / symptoms / pathophysiology?
    • MOI.
    • Increased risk of haemorrhage.
    • Urogenital injuries.
    • Often accompanied by other injuries.
    • Bleeding
    • Bruising
    • Deformity / swelling
    • Shortening of lower limb
    • Pain over hips, groin, sacrum.
    • Hypovolaemic shock.
    • Frogs Legs.
  17. PELVIC TRAUMA
    How should these be managed?
    • c-Spine
    • Control catastrophic haemorrhage.
    • High flow O2.
    • Pelvic splint (with log roll).
    • Analgesia.
    • Paramedic assistance.
    • Swift transfer to MTC.
    • Avoid repeated movement.
    • Do not spring the pelvis.
Author
jamiehaig
ID
345539
Card Set
Trauma
Description
Revision cards for traumatic injuries
Updated