P/S - Khan/TPR/KPL/2019

  1. ________ is defined as the tendency for people to choose relationships with other people who have similar attributes.
  2. an individual’s drug-related behavior may be further reinforced by the way others judge or classify him/her. A guiding concept for this aspect would likely be:

    A- Discrimination
    B- Prejudice
    C- Negative reinforcement 
    D- Labeling

    Labeling theory as a concept refers to how deviant individual behavior becomes even more deviant when a person is negatively labeled or classified as such.
  3. When activity is lowered in the ____ hemisphere, euphoria is experienced. Conversely, when activity is lowered in the _____ hemisphere, depression is reported.
    right - cuz thats where negative emotion is

    left - cuz thats where positive emotion is
  4. Continuous reinforcement occurs on a 1:1 ratio
  5. When an animal no longer receives regular reinforcement, its original behavior will sometimes spike (meaning increase dramatically) - this is known as an _______.
    extinction burst - Happens before the extinction takes place. (Spontaneous recovery happens after extinction took place.)
  6. Extinction is when conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (reward) and the conditioned stimulus no longer elicits the conditioned response. 

    After a break period from conditioned stimulus the conditioned stimulus is presented again and out of the blue there is the conditioned response again. This is called _______.
    Spontaneous recovery.
  7. a p-value that is less than the significance criterion denotes that the results were extremely significant.
  8. ______- pictures and maps are processed here.
    Visuo-spatial sketchpad
  9. _______ - capacity is 2 seconds. Verbal info such as words and numbers are stored here and it can be from echoic or iconic memory.

    ex) repeating a phone number long enough to type it in.
    Phonological loop/store

    a type of working memory
  10. Visuo-spatial sketchpad- pictures and maps are processed here.

    Phonological loop/store - capacity is 2 seconds. Verbal info such as words and numbers are stored here and it can be from echoic or iconic memory.

    ex) repeating a phone number long enough to type it in.

    The _______ get these two to coordinate to create integrated representation which gets stored in the _______ which acts as a connector to long-term memory
    central executive 

    episodic buffer
  11. Rehearsal before being required to repeat
    Articulatory Rehearsal Component
  12. type of reasoning

    top down generalizations first ____

    bottom up specific instances first ____

  13. using prototype or stereotypical factors while ignoring actual numerical info
    base rate fallacy
  14. EEG for REM resembles which state?
  15. 1-2-3-4-3-2-REM

    Early in night but later in night less slow wave (delta 3/4) sleep.
  16. _______ theory of dreaming states wakeful and dreaming states use the same mental systems within the brain.
    cognitive process theory
  17. ______ theory of language states that development occurs due to preferential reinforcement of certain phonemes by parents and caregivers 

    social interaction theory indicates that language develops via interactions with parents/caregivers.
  18. 75% of dreaming occurs in REM but dreaming occurs in all other stages also but most crazy dreams are in REM.
  19. ____ skew means that the tail is on the right positive side and most scores are ____ the mean

    ____ skew means that the tail is on the left negative side and most scores are ____ the mean
    Right positive


    Left negative

  20. _____ theory is organism driven by psychological needs

    _____ theory is organism driven by physiological needs
    drive theory - psychological

    drive reduction theory - physiological
  21. schedule that produces slowest rate of extinction ______

    slow steady and consistent rate of response _______ 

    procrastination would match with ____ schedule 

    superstitious behavior like performing in hopes of reward is with _______
    variable ratio 

    variable interval

    fixed ratio - cuz u know when u get reward

    fixed interval- cuz u dont know when u get it but may falsely think correct behavior was a hit
  22. hippocampus is located in the _____
    medial temporal lobe
  23. The multistore model of memory (also known as the modal model) was proposed by ______ and is a structural model. They proposed that memory consisted of three stores: a sensory register, short-term memory/ short term store (7+/-) and long-term memory (LTM).
    Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
  24. social cognitive - modeling

    cognitive behavioral - maladaptive thoughts being changed through re-education and goal oriented behavioral changes

    ex- self reflective writing exercise
  25. _______ is a mental construct built in large part by internalizing the judgments that others have about the self. Negative judgments demonstrated through discrimination would thus have an impact on this. Also one's persistent mental of one's appearance - physical traits, hair color, etc.

     ______ is the notion that a person develops an attitude by watching their own behavior and then concluding that they must hold whatever attitude would have led to that behavior. For example, a woman sees herself make a rude comment towards a co-worker and then concludes, “Wow, I must really not like that person.”

  26. an example of an organizational change would be more like addition of a pediatric sub-specialty in childhood pediatrics because organization is a group with identifiable membership with a common purpose

    changes in law would be more like an institutional change
  27. General Intelligence - ______ - one type of intelligence useful for all functions. G Factor

    _______ 8 types of intelligences - these do not affect each other: logical-mathematical; verbal-linguistic; spatial-visual; intrapersonal, interpersonal, body-kinesthesia...

    ______ 7 types of intelligences - 7 stones: verbal fluency, reading comprehension, numerical, inductive reasoning..

    ______ - 3 types of intelligences: 1) Analytical - Solving WEll defined problems (clear question and answer) 2) Creative - solving ill defined problems. 3) Practical (on the stop questions; using fluid intelligence).

    _______ idea of hereditary genius (pretty self explanatory)

    _____ of mental age: tried to reason young adolescnce inteligences to find out future success (later modified by lewis terman to understand intelligence of immigrants but language barrier posed a problem).
    Charles Spearman



    Sternburg triarchic

    Galton - Galton's

    binet Idae
  28. Thurstone's 7 independent intelligence factors were clustered as "primary mental abilities":

    Word Fluency

    Verbal Comprehension

    Spatial Ability

    Perceptual Speed

    Numerical Ability

    Inductive Reasoning


    Gardner's 8 intelligence factors were much more related to specific talents and he received criticism for it. They also came later than Thurstone:

    Linguistic (exemplar: T.S. Eliot)

    Logical-mathematical (exemplar: Einstein)

    Musical (exemplar: Stravinsky)Spatial (exemplar: Picasso)

    Bodily-kinesthetic (exemplar: Michael Jackson)

    Intrapersonal (exemplar: Freud)

    Interpersonal (exemplar: Gandhi)

    Naturalist (exemplar: Darwin)

    Basically, Thurstone's factors were better than the overarching g factor that Spearman proposed, but they also clustered a bit so not entirely independent.Gardner's 8 factors were nice because they accounted for more varied intelligences like kinesthetics, etc; BUT critics said some of these were simply talents and not necessarily rooted in intelligence.
  29. which psychologist?

    Mental age is assessed by intellectual performance of a child being assessed and then compared to average intellectual performance for that childs actual chronological age.
    alfred binet
  30. week 1- no reward after behavior

    week 2- reward after every behavior

    week 3- reward sometimes after behavior

    how would behavior increase or decrease over the 3 weeks?

    increase the 1st two then decline or increase over the course of study?
    increase over the course of study

    • wk 1- no reward so no increase
    • wk2 - increase
    • wk 3- increase some more because variable ratio is the most effective in increasing frequency (gambling)
  31. The length of an error bar indicates the uncertainty of the value. For example, for an average value, a long error bar means that the concentration of the values the average was calculated on is low, and thus that the average value is uncertain. Conversely, a short error bar means that the concentration of values is high, and thus, that the average value is more certain.
  32. The Gestalt law of _____ states that humans perceive visual elements that move in the same speed and/or direction as parts of a single stimulus. An example of this is a flock of birds.

    The law of _____ holds that points that are connected by straight or curving lines are seen in a way that follows the smoothest path. Rather than seeing separate lines and angles, lines are seen as belonging together.
    common fate

  33. split brain pt shown colors on left side of visual field only will have images sent to right hemisphere and won't be able to name the colors cuz no access to names/colors/language/vocab of L hemisphere
  34. fovea - mostly rods or cones?
    fovea - cones
  35. Is impression management (like supressing your emotions during medical school visits with patients to hide real feelings) and active or passive process?
  36. means of data collection:

    _____ is when the researcher takes part in the phenomenon being studied 

    _____ is when the researcher just sits back and watches
    participant observation (researcher takes part in social phenomenon directly) 

    naturalistic observation (researcher does not take part in social phenomenon/study)
  37. ________ laws created by white southerners to enforce racial segregation across the South from the 1870s. Basically the same as institutional racism.

    _____   believing that racism is wrong, but not seeing racism as a significant institutional problem in society
    Jim Crow racism

    Symbolic racism
  38. Iconic memory lasts _____ 

    echoic memory lasts ____

    working / STM lasts _____
    • iconic - 1/2 second
    • echoic - 3-4 seconds
    • working/ STM - 20-30 seconds
  39. ______ is a term associated with conflict theory that refers to women going out and working but when they come home they have to do house work, whereas men do not have to do housework once they get home
    second shift
  40. what factor based of sociological studies shows to be the single change that has the greatest impact in developing countries health outcomes?
    increasing income / wealth

    even more so than increasing health care access because developing countries have health care access but it is unfunded or ineffective
  41. when the way that something is measured effects the outcome______

    like when you're trying to ask questions referring to a depressive inventory and you ask questions about crying and body image preoccupation but females reply more positively to these questions
    measurement bias
  42. measure sleep stages - 

    isolate neuron activity in specific brain regions -

    measure regional cerebral blood flow
    measure sleep stages - EEG

    isolate neuron activity in specific brain regions - fMRI (neural activity, brain injury or disorders)

    measure regional cerebral blood flow -  PET scan
  43. This theory suggests that motivation is due to an interplay between perceived likelihood of success and relative worth of rewards likely to be associated with success.
    Expectancy-value theory
  44. ______ suggests that physical expression of an emotion also activates the experience of that emotion.
    Facial feedback hypothesis
  45. Emotion in psychology

    _____ refers to the inherent attractiveness or aversiveness of a stimuli, event, or situation

    attractiveness would be labeled with + valence and aversiveness would be labeled - valence

    • happiness +
    • anger -

    arousal is the other measure of emotion and has to do with the intensity or degree to which an emotion is experienced
  46. Long-term potentiation involves the activity of _____ on post-synaptic receptors, specifically NMDA receptors.
  47. ____ is the least severe and highest functioning form of autism on the autism spectrum disorder
    asperger's syndrome
  48. in human auditory system, which cell type is responsible for transducing auditory signals
    inner hair cells of cochlea (sensory receptors)

    outer hair cells of cochlea are used for mechanical amplification
  49. _______ therapy is a good short-term therapy used to deal with a specific problem like insomnia, smoking, and weight loss. Pt's learn how to identify and change patterns that negatively influence behavior.
    cognitive-behavioral therapy - again, good short-term therapy for insomnia.
  50. ______ fatal disease in which nerves that control voluntary muscles degenerate.

    _____ autoimmune disease in which myelin sheath of axons of the CNS degenerate.

    _____ neurodegenerative disorder in which loss of voluntary movement cuz of degeneration of dopaminergic projections from substantia nigra to basal ganglia
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/ Gehrig's disease

    Multiple sclerosis

    Parkinson's disease
  51. what are the two most common mental disorders and what % of people have them?

    What range for a percentage of people have mood disorders?

    what percentage of people have a mental illness?
    anxiety (18%)

    depression (10%)

    10% mood disorders/ depression (dysthymia - chronic mild depression over 2 years, major depression, bipolar (2.8%) etc)

    25% of people have a mental illness
  52. _______ anxiety/obsession about potentially having an illness or developing one with NO ACTUAL PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS

    _____ phenomenon in which you have physical symptoms but it can't be explained by any medical condition or mental disorder. Pt expresses extreme anxiety over undiagnosed condition.

    _______ psychological stressor/ event/ traumatic experience occurs then converted to physical symptoms that have no underlying medical cause.
    Illness anxiety disorder

    somatic symptom disorder

    conversion disorder
  53. The purpose of this original study was to understand when the control of delayed gratification, the ability to wait to obtain something that one wants, develops in children.
    The Stanford Marshmallow Test

     conducted by Walter Mischel and Ebbe B. Ebbesen

    put marshmallow in front of child tell child they can eat it but if they wait 15 minutes they can get another one
  54. _______ food deprivation occurs, then food is given but aversive stimulus is present and if animal unwilling to tolerate the stimulus despite food deprivation that means aversion level is high
    Approach avoidance test
  55. frontal lobe - working memory

    hippocampus - episodic memory / semantic memory

    amygdala - implicit memory/ emotional memory

    basal ganglia, motor cortex, cerebellum - implicit procedural memory
  56. what type of medicine used for chronic disease?

    _____ and ____ is used when someone becomes ill or is immediate treatment of illness that's quickly spreading and has dramatic effect on population
    preventive medicine - cost efficient

    crisis medicine and curative medicine - costly
  57. ____ this type of rehearsal involves trying to develop a pattern or meaning for something to organize it in a way that enhances memory

    _____ rote repetition of something over and over without context
    elaborative rehearsal

    maintenance rehearsal
  58. _____ term used by ervin goffman to explain how people purposefully ignore mistakes or blunders in the interaction process that especially those that would threaten an individuals "face"
    tactful blindness

    face- mask maintained by individuals that mirrors how they want others to perceive them.
  59. Ideology that men are superior to women
  60. the more contact we have with an individual who is different from us the more accepting we are is called _____ coined by _____

    under appropriate conditions interpersonal contact is one of the most effective ways to reduce prejudice between majority and minority group members
    contact hypothesis

    gordon allport
  61. _____ tendency to impute limitations on a persons abilities beyond those of the disability itself, like if someone had a physical ailment but you then assume they have mental ailment and talk to them or treat them differently
    stigma extension
  62. Policies
    that take factors like race or sex into consideration to benefit
    underrepresented groups in admissions or job hiring decisions; these
    policies have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past
    victims of discrimination.
    affirmative action
  63. when only people with a certain experience can claim privileged knowledge to something. Basically you need to be apart of a group to understand experience of a group.

    ex. Jewish person who went through holocaust would have more experience as they went through it as oppose to someone just writing about it
    epistemic authority
  64. _____ is a gestalts principle in which is someone's indication of what they see being dependent on what they define to be the background.

    ex- white vase with black background or black faces connected with white background.
    Figure Ground
  65. type 1 error - rejecting a true null (false positive/ saying something is there when it's not)

    so better at recognizing when something is not present is reduction of type 1 errors

    type 2 error is a false negative, or incorrect acceptance of a false null or saying something doesn't exist when it does


    false positive - its NOT there so don't reject it.

    false negative - it is there, so you should reject it. (the false null that should be rejected is there)

    better at determining when something IS there is reduction in type 2 errors
  66. _____ is a theory proposed by ____ that states social systems help to perpetuate poverty and people in poverty are often trapped because they have no social system to give them skills education and training to escape poverty.
    Culture of poverty

    Oscar Lewis
  67. stages of cross nigrscence:

    _____ view whites more superior

    ____ distrust whites

    _____  integrated aspects of his own culture with that of the majority culture and is working to rectify past racial injustices.
    pre-encounter stage

     immersion-emersion stage

    internalization stage
  68. 3 brain regions that could be involved in depression
    hypothalamus - hormones like serotonin/ norepinephrine within this pathway

    frontal lobe-  is involved in humans’ ability to project future consequences of current actions.

    limbic system - emotion
  69. bias

    when participant drops out of a long-term experiment or study

    when you dont remember properly

    how one is chosen for study
    attrition bias

    reconstructive bias

    selection bias
  70. Qualitative research is used to gather in-depth information about a specific research question, and often involves the use of focus groups or other small samples to better understand phenomena.

     Case studies are typically extensive interviews or reports about the experience of one specific person/ or very exclusive population, like someone who was accused by Internet vigilantes but later proven innocent.
  71. Cialdini’s 6 principles of persuasion

    Providing a favor 

    being likable 

    written commitment

    social proof- do what others doing


    make something seem like its in short supply
  72. The ______ part of brain has glucocorticoid receptors so decrease volume means decreased glucocorticoid receptors
Card Set
P/S - Khan/TPR/KPL/2019