________ is defined as the tendency for people to choose relationships with other people who have similar attributes.
an individual’s drug-related behavior may be further reinforced by the way others judge or classify him/her. A guiding concept for this aspect would likely be:
C- Negative reinforcement
Labeling theory as a concept refers to how deviant individual behavior becomes even more deviant when a person is negatively labeled or classified as such.
When activity is lowered in the ____ hemisphere, euphoria is experienced. Conversely, when activity is lowered in the _____ hemisphere, depression is reported.
right - cuz thats where negative emotion is
left - cuz thats where positive emotion is
Continuous reinforcement occurs on a 1:1 ratio
When an animal no longer receives regular reinforcement, its original behavior will sometimes spike (meaning increase dramatically) - this is known as an _______.
extinction burst - Happens before the extinction takes place. (Spontaneous recovery happens after extinction took place.)
Extinction is when conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (reward) and the conditioned stimulus no longer elicits the conditioned response.
After a break period from conditioned stimulus the conditioned stimulus is presented again and out of the blue there is the conditioned response again. This is called _______.
a p-value that is less than the significance criterion denotes that the results were extremely significant.
______- pictures and maps are processed here.
_______ - capacity is 2 seconds. Verbal info such as words and numbers are stored here and it can be from echoic or iconic memory.
ex) repeating a phone number long enough to type it in.
a type of working memory
Visuo-spatial sketchpad- pictures and maps are processed here.
Phonological loop/store - capacity is 2 seconds. Verbal info such as words and numbers are stored here and it can be from echoic or iconic memory.
ex) repeating a phone number long enough to type it in.
The _______ get these two to coordinate to create integrated representation which gets stored in the _______ which acts as a connector to long-term memory
Rehearsal before being required to repeat
Articulatory Rehearsal Component
type of reasoning
top down generalizations first ____
bottom up specific instances first ____
using prototype or stereotypical factors while ignoring actual numerical info
base rate fallacy
EEG for REM resembles which state?
Early in night but later in night less slow wave (delta 3/4) sleep.
_______ theory of dreaming states wakeful and dreaming states use the same mental systems within the brain.
cognitive process theory
______ theory of language states that development occurs due to preferential reinforcement of certain phonemes by parents and caregivers
social interaction theory indicates that language develops via interactions with parents/caregivers.
75% of dreaming occurs in REM but dreaming occurs in all other stages also but most crazy dreams are in REM.
____ skew means that the tail is on the right positive side and most scores are ____ the mean
____ skew means that the tail is on the left negative side and most scores are ____ the mean
_____ theory is organism driven by psychological needs
_____ theory is organism driven by physiological needs
drive theory - psychological
drive reduction theory - physiological
schedule that produces slowest rate of extinction ______
slow steady and consistent rate of response _______
procrastination would match with ____ schedule
superstitious behavior like performing in hopes of reward is with _______
fixed ratio - cuz u know when u get reward
fixed interval- cuz u dont know when u get it but may falsely think correct behavior was a hit
hippocampus is located in the _____
medial temporal lobe
The multistore model of memory (also known as the modal model) was proposed by ______ and is a structural model. They proposed that memory consisted of three stores: a sensory register, short-term memory/ short term store (7+/-) and long-term memory (LTM).
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
social cognitive - modeling
cognitive behavioral - maladaptive thoughts being changed through re-education and goal oriented behavioral changes
ex- self reflective writing exercise
_______ is a mental construct built in large part by internalizing the judgments that others have about the self. Negative judgments demonstrated through discrimination would thus have an impact on this. Also one's persistent mental of one's appearance - physical traits, hair color, etc.
______ is the notion that a person develops an attitude by watching their own behavior and then concluding that they must hold whatever attitude would have led to that behavior. For example, a woman sees herself make a rude comment towards a co-worker and then concludes, “Wow, I must really not like that person.”
an example of an organizational change would be more like addition of a pediatric sub-specialty in childhood pediatrics because organization is a group with identifiable membership with a common purpose
changes in law would be more like an institutional change
General Intelligence - ______ - one type of intelligence useful for all functions. G Factor
_______ 8 types of intelligences - these do not affect each other: logical-mathematical; verbal-linguistic; spatial-visual; intrapersonal, interpersonal, body-kinesthesia...
______ 7 types of intelligences - 7 stones: verbal fluency, reading comprehension, numerical, inductive reasoning..
______ - 3 types of intelligences: 1) Analytical - Solving WEll defined problems (clear question and answer) 2) Creative - solving ill defined problems. 3) Practical (on the stop questions; using fluid intelligence).
_______ idea of hereditary genius (pretty self explanatory)
_____ of mental age: tried to reason young adolescnce inteligences to find out future success (later modified by lewis terman to understand intelligence of immigrants but language barrier posed a problem).
Galton - Galton's
Thurstone's 7 independent intelligence factors were clustered as "primary mental abilities":
Gardner's 8 intelligence factors were much more related to specific talents and he received criticism for it. They also came later than Thurstone:
Linguistic (exemplar: T.S. Eliot)
Logical-mathematical (exemplar: Einstein)
Musical (exemplar: Stravinsky)Spatial (exemplar: Picasso)
Bodily-kinesthetic (exemplar: Michael Jackson)
Intrapersonal (exemplar: Freud)
Interpersonal (exemplar: Gandhi)
Naturalist (exemplar: Darwin)
Basically, Thurstone's factors were better than the overarching g factor that Spearman proposed, but they also clustered a bit so not entirely independent.Gardner's 8 factors were nice because they accounted for more varied intelligences like kinesthetics, etc; BUT critics said some of these were simply talents and not necessarily rooted in intelligence.
Mental age is assessed by intellectual performance of a child being assessed and then compared to average intellectual performance for that childs actual chronological age.
week 1- no reward after behavior
week 2- reward after every behavior
week 3- reward sometimes after behavior
how would behavior increase or decrease over the 3 weeks?
increase the 1st two then decline or increase over the course of study?
increase over the course of study
- wk 1- no reward so no increase
- wk2 - increase
- wk 3- increase some more because variable ratio is the most effective in increasing frequency (gambling)
The length of an error bar indicates the uncertainty of the value. For example, for an average value, a long error bar means that the concentration of the values the average was calculated on is low, and thus that the average value is uncertain. Conversely, a short error bar means that the concentration of values is high, and thus, that the average value is more certain.
The Gestalt law of _____ states that humans perceive visual elements that move in the same speed and/or direction as parts of a single stimulus. An example of this is a flock of birds.
The law of _____ holds that points that are connected by straight or curving lines are seen in a way that follows the smoothest path. Rather than seeing separate lines and angles, lines are seen as belonging together.
split brain pt shown colors on left side of visual field only will have images sent to right hemisphere and won't be able to name the colors cuz no access to names/colors/language/vocab of L hemisphere
fovea - mostly rods or cones?
fovea - cones
Is impression management (like supressing your emotions during medical school visits with patients to hide real feelings) and active or passive process?
means of data collection:
_____ is when the researcher takes part in the phenomenon being studied
_____ is when the researcher just sits back and watches
participant observation (researcher takes part in social phenomenon directly)
naturalistic observation (researcher does not take part in social phenomenon/study)
________ laws created by white southerners to enforce racial segregation across the South from the 1870s. Basically the same as institutional racism.
_____ believing that racism is wrong, but not seeing racism as a significant institutional problem in society
Jim Crow racism
Iconic memory lasts _____
echoic memory lasts ____
working / STM lasts _____
- iconic - 1/2 second
- echoic - 3-4 seconds
- working/ STM - 20-30 seconds
______ is a term associated with conflict theory that refers to women going out and working but when they come home they have to do house work, whereas men do not have to do housework once they get home
what factor based of sociological studies shows to be the single change that has the greatest impact in developing countries health outcomes?
increasing income / wealth
even more so than increasing health care access because developing countries have health care access but it is unfunded or ineffective
when the way that something is measured effects the outcome______
like when you're trying to ask questions referring to a depressive inventory and you ask questions about crying and body image preoccupation but females reply more positively to these questions
measure sleep stages -
isolate neuron activity in specific brain regions -
measure regional cerebral blood flow
measure sleep stages - EEG
isolate neuron activity in specific brain regions - fMRI (neural activity, brain injury or disorders)
measure regional cerebral blood flow - PET scan
This theory suggests that motivation is due to an interplay between perceived likelihood of success and relative worth of rewards likely to be associated with success.
______ suggests that physical expression of an emotion also activates the experience of that emotion.
Facial feedback hypothesis
Emotion in psychology
_____ refers to the inherent attractiveness or aversiveness of a stimuli, event, or situation
attractiveness would be labeled with + valence and aversiveness would be labeled - valence
arousal is the other measure of emotion and has to do with the intensity or degree to which an emotion is experienced
Long-term potentiation involves the activity of _____ on post-synaptic receptors, specifically NMDA receptors.
____ is the least severe and highest functioning form of autism on the autism spectrum disorder
in human auditory system, which cell type is responsible for transducing auditory signals
inner hair cells of cochlea (sensory receptors)
outer hair cells of cochlea are used for mechanical amplification
_______ therapy is a good short-term therapy used to deal with a specific problem like insomnia, smoking, and weight loss. Pt's learn how to identify and change patterns that negatively influence behavior.
cognitive-behavioral therapy - again, good short-term therapy for insomnia.
______ fatal disease in which nerves that control voluntary muscles degenerate.
_____ autoimmune disease in which myelin sheath of axons of the CNS degenerate.
_____ neurodegenerative disorder in which loss of voluntary movement cuz of degeneration of dopaminergic projections from substantia nigra to basal ganglia
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/ Gehrig's disease
what are the two most common mental disorders and what % of people have them?
What range for a percentage of people have mood disorders?
what percentage of people have a mental illness?
10% mood disorders/ depression (dysthymia - chronic mild depression over 2 years, major depression, bipolar (2.8%) etc)
25% of people have a mental illness
_______ anxiety/obsession about potentially having an illness or developing one with NO ACTUAL PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
_____ phenomenon in which you have physical symptoms but it can't be explained by any medical condition or mental disorder. Pt expresses extreme anxiety over undiagnosed condition.
_______ psychological stressor/ event/ traumatic experience occurs then converted to physical symptoms that have no underlying medical cause.
Illness anxiety disorder
somatic symptom disorder
The purpose of this original study was to understand when the control of delayed gratification, the ability to wait to obtain something that one wants, develops in children.
The Stanford Marshmallow Test
conducted by Walter Mischel and Ebbe B. Ebbesen
put marshmallow in front of child tell child they can eat it but if they wait 15 minutes they can get another one
_______ food deprivation occurs, then food is given but aversive stimulus is present and if animal unwilling to tolerate the stimulus despite food deprivation that means aversion level is high
Approach avoidance test
frontal lobe - working memory
hippocampus - episodic memory / semantic memory
amygdala - implicit memory/ emotional memory
basal ganglia, motor cortex, cerebellum - implicit procedural memory
what type of medicine used for chronic disease?
_____ and ____ is used when someone becomes ill or is immediate treatment of illness that's quickly spreading and has dramatic effect on population
preventive medicine - cost efficient
crisis medicine and curative medicine - costly
____ this type of rehearsal involves trying to develop a pattern or meaning for something to organize it in a way that enhances memory
_____ rote repetition of something over and over without context
_____ term used by ervin goffman to explain how people purposefully ignore mistakes or blunders in the interaction process that especially those that would threaten an individuals "face"
face- mask maintained by individuals that mirrors how they want others to perceive them.
Ideology that men are superior to women
the more contact we have with an individual who is different from us the more accepting we are is called _____ coined by _____
under appropriate conditions interpersonal contact is one of the most effective ways to reduce prejudice between majority and minority group members
_____ tendency to impute limitations on a persons abilities beyond those of the disability itself, like if someone had a physical ailment but you then assume they have mental ailment and talk to them or treat them differently
that take factors like race or sex into consideration to benefit
underrepresented groups in admissions or job hiring decisions; these
policies have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past
victims of discrimination.
when only people with a certain experience can claim privileged knowledge to something. Basically you need to be apart of a group to understand experience of a group.
ex. Jewish person who went through holocaust would have more experience as they went through it as oppose to someone just writing about it
_____ is a gestalts principle in which is someone's indication of what they see being dependent on what they define to be the background.
ex- white vase with black background or black faces connected with white background.
type 1 error - rejecting a true null (false positive/ saying something is there when it's not)
so better at recognizing when something is not present is reduction of type 1 errors
type 2 error is a false negative, or incorrect acceptance of a false null or saying something doesn't exist when it does
false positive - its NOT there so don't reject it.
false negative - it is there, so you should reject it. (the false null that should be rejected is there)
better at determining when something IS there is reduction in type 2 errors
_____ is a theory proposed by ____ that states social systems help to perpetuate poverty and people in poverty are often trapped because they have no social system to give them skills education and training to escape poverty.
Culture of poverty
stages of cross nigrscence:
_____ view whites more superior
____ distrust whites
_____ integrated aspects of his own culture with that of the majority culture and is working to rectify past racial injustices.
3 brain regions that could be involved in depression
hypothalamus - hormones like serotonin/ norepinephrine within this pathway
frontal lobe- is involved in humans’ ability to project future consequences of current actions.
limbic system - emotion
when participant drops out of a long-term experiment or study
when you dont remember properly
how one is chosen for study
Qualitative research is used to gather in-depth information about a specific research question, and often involves the use of focus groups or other small samples to better understand phenomena.
Case studies are typically extensive interviews or reports about the experience of one specific person/ or very exclusive population, like someone who was accused by Internet vigilantes but later proven innocent.
Cialdini’s 6 principles of persuasion
Providing a favor
social proof- do what others doing
make something seem like its in short supply
The ______ part of brain has glucocorticoid receptors so decrease volume means decreased glucocorticoid receptors