2. Anatomy
    Study of structure and shape of body and body parts and relationship to one another
  3. Physiology
    Study of how the body and its parts work or function
  4. Atoms
    Building blocks of matter
  5. Cells
    Smallest units of all living things
  6. Tissues
    Groups of similar cells that have a common function
  7. Organ
    Structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs specific function for the body
  8. Organ system
    Group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose
  9. Organism
    Highest level of structural organization; made up of the 11 organ systems
  10. Necessary life functions
    Maintenance of boundaries movement responsiveness digestion metabolism excretion reproduction growth
  11. Survival needs
    Nutrients oxygen water constant body temperature constant atmospheric pressure
  12. Homeostasis
    Body�s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions in response to environmental changes. A dynamic state of equilibrium results.
  13. Components of a homeostatic control mechanism
  14. Negative feedback mechanisms Net effect of the response to the stimulus is
  15. to shut off the original stimulus or reduce
  16. its intensity
  17. Positive feedback mechanisms Increase the original disturbance/stimulus
  18. and to push the variable farther from its
  19. original value
  20. Anatomical position Body is erect
    with feet parallel and arms
  21. hanging at sides with palms facing forward
  22. Abdominal Anterior body trunk inferior to ribs
  23. (anterior body landmark)
  24. Acromial Point of shoulder (anterior body landmark)
  25. Antecubital Anterior surface of elbow (anterior body
  26. landmark)
  27. Axillary Armpit (anterior body landmark)
  28. Brachial Arm (anterior body landmark)
  29. Buccal Cheek area (anterior body landmark)
  30. Carpal Wrist (anterior body landmark)
  31. Cervical Neck region (anterior body landmark)
  32. Coxal Hip (anterior body landmark)
  33. Crural Leg (anterior body landmark)
  34. Digital Fingers
    toes (anterior body landmark)
  35. Femoral Thigh (anterior and posterior landmark)
  36. Fibular Lateral part of leg (anterior body landmark)
  37. Inguinal Area where thigh meets body trunk; groin
  38. (anterior body landmark)
  39. Nasal Nose area (anterior body landmark)
  40. Oral Mouth (anterior body landmark)
  41. Patellar Anterior knee (anterior body landmark)
  42. Pelvic Area overlying the pelvis anteriorly
  43. (anterior body landmark)
  44. Pubic Genital region (anterior body landmark)
  45. Sternal Breastbone area (anterior body landmark)
  46. Tarsal Ankle region (anterior body landmark)
  47. Thoracic Chest (anterior body landmark)
  48. Umbilical Navel (anterior body landmark)
  49. Calcaneal Heel of foot (posterior body landmark)
  50. Cephalic Head (posterior body landmark)
  51. Deltoid Curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid
  52. muscle (posterior body landmark)
  53. Femoral Thigh (posterior body landmark)
  54. Gluteal Buttock (posterior body landmark)
  55. Lumbar Area of back between ribs and hips
  56. (posterior body landmark)
  57. Occipital Posterior surface of head (posterior body
  58. landmark)
  59. Olecranal Posterior surface of elbow (posterior body
  60. landmark)
  61. Popliteal Posterior knee area (posterior body
  62. landmark)
  63. Sacral Area between hips (posterior body
  64. landmark)
  65. Scapular Shoulder blade region
  66. Sural Posterior surface of lower leg; the calf
  67. (posterior body landmark)
  68. Vertebral Area of spine (posterior body landmark)
  69. Plantar Sole of foot (inferior body landmark)
  70. Superior Toward head or upper part of a structure or
  71. the body; above; also known as cranial or
  72. cephalad
  73. Inferior Away from the head end or toward the
  74. lower part of a structure or the body;
  75. below; also known as caudal
  76. Anterior Toward or at the front of the body; in front
  77. of
  78. Posterior Toward or at the backside of the body;
  79. behind
  80. Medial Toward or at the midline of the body; on
  81. the inner side of
  82. Lateral Away from the midline of the body; on the
  83. outer side of
  84. Intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral
  85. structure
  86. Proximal Close to the origin of the body part or the
  87. point of attachment of a limb to the body
  88. trunk
  89. Distal Farther from the origin of a body part or
  90. the point of attachment of a limb to the
  91. body trunk
  92. Superficial Toward or at the body surface; external
  93. Deep Away from the body surface; more internal
  94. Sagittal section Cut made along a lengthwise plane or
  95. longitudinal plane of the body
    dividing the
  96. body into left and right body parts
  97. Midsagittal/median section Cut down median plane and right and left
  98. parts are equal in size
  99. Parasagittal A sagittal section that is not on the medial
  100. plane
  101. Frontal/coronal section Cut made along a lengthwise plane that
  102. divides the body or organ into anterior and
  103. posterior parts
  104. Transverse/cross section Cut made along a horizontal plane dividing
  105. body or organ into superior and inferior
  106. parts
  107. Dorsal body cavity Two subdivisions; cranial cavity and spinal
  108. cavity
  109. Ventral body cavity Two subdivisions; thoracic and
  110. abdominopelvic cavity
    separated by
  111. diaphragm
  112. Umbilical region (abdominopelvic cavity) Centermost region deep to and surrounding
  113. the navel
  114. Epigastric region (abdominopelvic cavity) Superior to the umbilical region
  115. Hypogastric region (abdominopelvic
  116. cavity)
  117. Inferior to the umbilical region
  118. Right and left iliac/inguinal regions
  119. (abdominopelvic cavity)
  120. Lateral to the hypogastric region
  121. Right and left lumbar regions
  122. (abdominopelvic cavity)
  123. Lateral to the umbilical region
  124. Right and left hypochondriac
  125. regions(abdominopelvic cavity)
  126. Lateral to the epigastric region
  127. Integumentary system organs Skin
  128. Integumentary system functions Forms external body covering; protects
  129. deeper tissue from injury; waterproofs;
  130. regulates body temp; vitamin D synthesis;
  131. some waste excretion
  132. Skeletal system organs Bones
  133. Skeletal system functions Protects and supports body organs;
  134. provides a framework the muscles use to
  135. cause movement; hematopoesis; mineral
  136. storage
  137. Muscular system organs Skeletal muscles
  138. Muscular system functions Contract/shorten for movement
  139. posture
    heat generation
  140. Nervous system organs Brain
    spinal cord
  141. receptors
  142. Nervous system functions Fast acting control/communication system
  143. of body; responds to internal/external
  144. changes by activating appropriate muscles/
  145. glands through nerve impulses
  146. Endocrine system organs Pituitary
  147. thymus
  148. Endocrine system functions Slow acting control/communication system
  149. of the body; glands secrete hormones that
  150. regulate routine processes as growth
  151. reproduction
    and nutrient use
  152. Cardiovascular system organs Heart and blood vessels
  153. Cardiovascular system functions Carries oxygen
  154. metabolic waste products (in blood)
  155. Lymphatic system organs Lymphatic vessels
    lymph nodes
  156. tonsils
  157. Lymphatic system functions Complementary to cardiovascular system;
  158. carries leaked fluid from blood vessels and
  159. returns it to blood
    disposes of debris
  160. immune surveillance
  161. Respiratory system organs Nasal passages
  162. bronchi
  163. Respiratory system functions Keeps body supplied with oxygen and
  164. removes carbon dioxide
  165. Digestive system organs Oral cavity
  166. small and large intestines
  167. Digestive system functions Ingestion
  168. absorption
  169. Urinary system organs Kidneys
  170. Urinary system functions Removes nitrogen-containing wastes from
  171. the blood and flushes them from the body
  172. in urine
  173. Reproductive system organs Males: scrotum
  174. duct system
  175. Females: ovary
    uterine tubes
  176. vagina
  177. Reproductive system functions Produce offspring
Card Set
anatomy bio