General Concepts of Anatomy

  1. fascia cell composition
    • 1) Static - fibroblasts, fat, fixed macrophages,
    • mast cells

    • 2) Mobile - other macrophages i.e. PMNs and
    • other wandering cells (cytotoxic killer T cells)
  2. fascia fibers
    1) Collagen - structural integrity

    2) Elastin - elasticity

    3) Reticular - support/rigidity (type of collagen)
  3. function of fascia
    a. Adds strength

    • b. Provides continuity to structures
    • covered\encircled by fascia

    • c. Provides ease of movement by allowing
    • structures to move easily over one another
  4. superficial fascia
    • connective tissue layer found directly beneath the skin composed of two fairly indistinct
    • layers: a more superficial layer composed mostly of fat, referred to as the
    • "fatty layer"; a deeper, more membranous reinforcing layer referred
    • to as the "membranous layer". In the abdomen, these layers are more
    • distinct and are referred to as Camper's and Scarpa's fascia, respectively
  5. deep fascia
    • a "stocking‑like" vestment of fibrous connective tissue, devoid of fat,
    • located deep to the superficial fascia. It surrounds the body musculature,
    • forms sheaths for nerves and vessels and provides for general compartmentation
    • by attaching to bony prominences. Also, provides accessory attachments of
    • muscle to bone.
  6. retinaculum
  7. a narrow band of deep fascia associated with a joint which
    • functions to hold tendons close to bones as the joint is moved; prevents
    • “bowstringing” of tendons across joints
  8. intermuscular septum
    • a specialization of deep fascia that forms a partition between muscular groups in
    • such areas as the upper and lower limbs and neck. These partitions assist in
    • delineating muscular compartments that are most often named for the major
    • function of the muscles located within the compartment. Intermuscular septa may also increase the
    • strength of a muscle by providing areas of attachment for muscular fibers.
  9. neurovascular sheath
    • a tubular sheath of deep fascia that surrounds arteries, veins, lymphatics and
    • nerves that traverse and/or feed a muscular compartment.
  10. bursa
    • connective tissue membranes which surround tendons as sheaths, overlay boney prominences,
    • and surround organs as bursal sacs, i.e., pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum. Their
    • linings secrete serous fluid which reduces the frictional component of structures
    • moving within or over them.
  11. bone functions
    a. Support and protection of soft tissues

    • b. Provides a system of levers for the action of
    • skeletal muscles

    c. Blood producing organ

    d. Storage site for calcium and phosphorus
  12. cortex
    • outer mantel of compact bone;
    • responsible for shape
  13. cancellous
    • inner supportive layer of trabeculated "spongy" bone; responsible for
    • strength
  14. medullary cavity
    • innermost "hollow" area filled with marrow; may be "yellow"
    • serving as a fat storage department or "red" serving as a blood forming organ
  15. periosteum
    connective tissue layer surrounding bone which:

    • 1) sends fibers (Sharpey) into the bone for
    • anchoring purposes

    • 2) possesses an inner layer of osteoprogenitor
    • cells which participate in bone growth and repair

    3) is highly innervated
  16. endosteum

    medullary spaces, is less well developed than periosteum, however, does possess
    osteoprogenitor cells.

    • lines medullary spaces, is less well developed than periosteum, however, does possess
    • osteoprogenitor cells.
  17. axial skeleton
    skull, vertebral column, rib cage
  18. appendicular skeleton
    limbs and bones of "girdle" which attach them to the axial skeleton.
  19. short bones
    carpals and tarsals
  20. irregular bones
    vertebrae, os coxa (hip), irregular bones of the skull, i.e., sphenoid, ethmoid, etc.
  21. flat bones
    • scapula, sternum, ribs, flat bones of skull, i.e., parietal, occipital, frontal,
    • etc.
  22. sesamoid bones
    • develop within tendons where they cross long bones
    • of the limbs. They help to reduce erosion of the tendons and help to provide the
    • muscle with a greater mechanical advantage by changing the angle of approach
    • of a tendon to its insertion
  23. head, condyle
    • expanded smooth articulating portions located at the ends
    • of long bones
  24. Line, ridge, crest, tubercle, tuberosity, spine, and trochanter
    areas of relief in order of increasing size; provide sites for muscle attachment
  25. facet
    smooth articulating surface
  26. pi, fovea, fossa
    depressions listed in increasing depth
  27. appositional bone growth
    • width: appositional growth is the result of synergistic activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts to alternately remove bone
    • from the wall of the medullary cavity and form new bone on its external
    • surface.
  28. fibrous joints
    synarthrosis: joints united by fibrous tissue
  29. artilaginous joints
    amphiarthrosis: joined by cartilage
  30. suture joint
    1) Occur only between bones of the skull

    • 2) In the adult, bones united by sutures may be
    • slightly moveable
  31. syndesmosis
    • 1) Union between two bones is accomplished by a fibrous
    • sheet or ligament, i.e., tibiofibular & tympanostapedial joints

    • 2) Joints of this type vary in their degree of
    • movement.
  32. synchondrosis
    joints united by hyaline cartilage

    1) Epiphyseal plate

    2) Normally immovable
  33. symphysis
    • joints
    • united by fibrocartilage

    • 1) Symphysis pubis, joints between
    • intervertebral bodies

    2) Partially movable
  34. characteristics of synovial joints
    most common type of joint:

    • 1) Articular surfaces covered by hyaline
    • cartilage

    • 2) Presence of a joint capsule surrounding a
    • joint cavity

    • 3) Joint capsule lined by a synovial membrane
    • that secretes synovial fluid important for joint lubrication and is nutritive
    • to the articular cartilage

    • 4) Joint capsule reinforced with capsular
    • ligaments

    • 5) May possess a fibrocartilaginous articular
    • disk or interarticular ligaments

    6) Joints are freely mobile
  35. describe the blood supply of synovial joint
    • A rich network of vessels surrounds the joint supplying the epiphysis, joint capsule
    • and synovial membrane, all areas except the articular cartilage.
  36. innervation of synovial joints
    • Joints are highly innervated, nerve endings being located in the articular
    • capsule and synovial membrane.

    • In general, nerves which supply muscles moving a specific
    • joint also provide innervation to the overlying skin as well as to the interior of
    • that joint.
  37. plane/gliding joint
    • small articular surfaces slide one upon the other.
    • Examples:
    • facet joints of the vertebral column, intercarpal and intermetacarpal joints
  38. hinge joint
    actions of flexion and extension allowed around a single transverse axis.

    (elbow,interphalangeal joints of the fingers and toes)
  39. pivot joint
    • a process of bone serves as a pin and is surrounded by an osseofibrous ring;
    • allows rotational movement longitudinally oriented about a single axis.

    (proximal radioulnar joint, atlantoaxial joint)
  40. condyloid joint
    • modified ball and socket employing a shallow
    • ellipsoidal socket and a ball that is not exactly round; allows movement in two planes (biaxial) at right
    • angles to one another.

    Examples: wrist joint (radiocarpal), metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints.
  41. saddle (sellar) joint
    • biaxial articulation where the surfaces of each articulating
    • bone lie in opposite directions (concave in one direction, convex in another
    • [like a saddle]) and the two bones reciprocally fit precisely with one another.

    Examples: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
  42. ball and socket
    • a convex head fits a concavity, more or less,
    • precisely, allows greater freedom of motion

    Examples: shoulder and hip joints
  43. muscle contraction/relaxation
    Muscles act upon articulated elements of the skeleton to provide movement only through contraction. A muscle exerts no action when it relaxes.
  44. retinaculum/fibrous sheaths
    • connective tissue structures which hold tendons close to bones which they traverse,
    • thereby preventing them from "bow-stringing" and facilitating their
    • action by acting as pulleys.
  45. bursae/synovial sheaths
    • fluid filled sacs which lie between tendons and underlying bone or encircle tendons;
    • prevents erosion of the tendon and facilitates its movement.
  46. fusiform muscles
    parallel fibers longitudinally oriented; weakest
  47. multipennate muscles
    many feathers next to one another; strongest
  48. fast twitch muscles
    • Muscles that can be contracted maximally for a short duration before fatiguing, i.e.
    • gastrocnemius (jumping muscle)
  49. slow twitch muscles
    muscles that can be contracted for long durations before fatiguing; soleus (running muscle).
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General Concepts of Anatomy