1. What is a dead space?
    Space of the airways and lungs that do not participate in gas exchange
  2. What is anatomic dead space?
    A type of dead space in the conducting zone that normally do not participate in gas exchange
  3. What comprises the conducting zone?
    Nose, mouth, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
  4. What makes up the respiratory zone?
    Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs
  5. What is functional dead space?
    • Dead space in the respiratory zone that do not participate in gas exchange
    • Alveoli that do not participate in gas exchange
  6. In functional dead space, what happens to alveoli ventilation and perfusion?
    They are not either ventilated or perfused, there is a ventilation/ perfusion mismatch
  7. What is physiologic dead space?
    Dead space in the lungs that do not participate in gas exchange
  8. What is tidal volume (Vt)?
    Air breathe into and out of lungs while at rest
  9. What is inspiratory reserve volume?
    Volume inhaled during Deep inhalation
  10. What is expiratory reserve volume?
    Volume exhaled during Deep exhalation
  11. What is residual volume?
    Volume that remains behind the lungs
  12. What is inspiratory capacity?
    Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
  13. What is functional residual capacity?
    Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume
  14. What is vital capacity?
    Inspiratory reserve volume + Tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume
  15. What is total lung capacity?
    Vital capacity + residual volume
  16. What volume is not included in vital capacity?
    Residual volume
  17. Which capacities do not include residual volume?
    • functional residual capacity
    • Total lung capacity
  18. What volume can a spirometry NOT able to measure?
    Residual volume
  19. True/False: a spirometry is able to measure the total lung capacity
    False, spirometry is not able to measure residual volume, therefore it is only capable to measure vital capacity
  20. How is residual volume measured?
    Using gas dilutional technique
  21. What is gas dilutional technique?
    Inhaling Helium so to equilibrate throughout the lungs and chamber
  22. Which equation is used to measure residual volume?
    • C1V1= C2V2
    • V2= total lung capacity + initial volume
  23. What is minute ventilation?
    • Volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs per minute
    • How fast air in lungs get replaced
  24. What is alveolar ventilation?
    • It is minute ventilation minus dead space
    • How fast air in the alveoli get replaced
  25. Which equation is used to calculated minute ventilation (Ve)?
    VE= Tidal volume x respiratory rate
  26. Which equation is used to calculated alveolar ventilation (Va)?
    • Va= (Vt-Vd) x RR
    • (Tidal volume – dead space) x respiratory rate
  27. Exhaled breath includes air that ____ and ______.
    Participated in gas exchange; did not participate in gas exchange
  28. Is it possible to have exhaled gas concentration be totally equal to alveolar gas concentration?
    No way José. There is definitely dead space because of conducting zone, and air in there do get exhaled out along with alveolar exhaled gas
  29. More dead space, more _____ the exhaled breath is.
    Dilute. Because of less pCO2 (reduced partial pressure of CO2)
  30. True/False: dead space air does not have any CO2
  31. How would you calculate the dead space pCO2?
    • Bohr equation:
    • Vd= [(Arterial pCO2- exhaled pCO2) / arterial pCO2] x Vt
  32. Arterial pCO2 value is used to estimate which other volume?
    Alveolar pCO2
  33. What dos the Bohr equation tell us?
    Fraction of tidal volume that remained in the dead space
  34. What is Boyle’s Law?
    P1V1= P2V2
  35. What does Boyles Law tell us?
    Pressure of a gas is inversely related to the volume of the gas
  36. Air flow is ______ proportional to resistance.
  37. Air flow is ____ proportional to pressure gradient between atmosphere and alveoli
  38. The lungs expand during inhalation, what happens to the volume and alveolar pressure?
    • Volume increase
    • Alveolar pressure decrease
  39. Do lungs expand or recoil during exhalation?
  40. What happens to lung volume and alveolar pressure during exhalation?
    • Volume decrease
    • Alveolar pressure increase
  41. What pressure causes air to flow into and out of the lungs?
    Intrapleural pressure (negative)
  42. Intrapleural pressure is ___ than alveolar and airway pressures
  43. Why must intrapleural pressure be less than alveolar and airway pressure?
    To keep the lungs from collapsing
  44. What is transmural pressure?
    Pressure between the alveoli and intrapleural space
  45. Due to elastic reoil, lungs want to ____, chest wall wants to ____, and as a result, intrapleural pressure ____ because of ____intrapleural volume.
    Collapse ; expand; decreases; increased
  46. How is functional residual capacity determined?
    Elastic forces of lung collapse and chest expansion
  47. Emphysema patients show high or low functional residual capacity?
    high – more residual air in lungs
  48. Pulmonary fibrosis patients show high or low functional residual capacity?
    Low –less residual air in lungs
  49. Emphysema patient has ____ lung compliance and ___ elastance, which means chest wall goes ____.
    High; low; outward
  50. Pulmonary fibrosis has ____compliance and ____ elastance, which means chest wall goes ____.
    Low; high; inward

    • What happens when intrapleural pressure is not less than alveolar pressure?
    • Lung collapses and chest wall springs out! (chest wall wins the tug o war)
  51. Intrapleural pressure is more ____ during inhalation
  52. During inspiration, when intrapleural pressure gets more negative, what results in lung volume?
  53. What is the alveolar pressure at the start of inhalation?
    Zero, no air flow at that time
  54. What is the alveolar pressure at the end of exhalation?
    At zero again.
  55. What is the intrapleural pressure at the end of exhalation?
    Very negative
  56. True/False: during inhalation, alveoli expand
  57. During exhalation, lungs ____ back to their starting position
  58. What is alveolar pressure at the end of exhalation?
  59. When is intrapleural pressure most negative?
    end of inhalation
  60. How is transmural pressure calculated?
    P transmural = P alveolar – P intrapleural
  61. During inspiration, intrapleural pressure becomes more ______, making transmural pressure more ______, allowing the lungs to open and thereby decreasing alveolar pressure.
    Negative; positive
  62. During inhalation, which pressures decrease?
    Intrapleural and alveolar
  63. True/False: Transmural pressure stays positive through respiration
    True, in order to keep airway distended
  64. Why must transmural pressure be positive all the time?
    To avoid the lungs from collapsing
  65. During passive exhalation, alveolar pressure _____ atmospheric pressure
  66. Does pressure in the airway increase or decrease during exhalation?
  67. True/False: transmural pressure is negative during exhalation
    False. Transmural pressure is always positive
  68. During forced expiration, does intrapleural pressure become positive or negative?
  69. During forced expiration, does alveolar pressure becomes positive or negative?
  70. What happens to airway pressure during forced expiration?
    Airway pressure steadily declines away from the alveoli
  71. In obstructive lung disease, there is a significant loss in which typic of respiratory flow?
    Expiratory flow
  72. In restrictive lung disease, which type of respiratory flow is limited?
    inhalation; problems with pulling air into lungs due to low lung compliance
  73. What is an example of a restrictive lung disease?
  74. Fibrosis is what type of lung disease: restrictive or obstructive?
  75. Emphysema is which type of lung disease: restrictive or obstructive?
  76. Asthma is which type of lung disease: restrictive or obstructive?
  77. What is compliance?
    Distensibility of the lung
  78. When does lung distend under pressure?
    During inhalation
  79. What is elastance?
    tendency to recoil back to original volume after distention
  80. When does lung recoil?
    During exhalation
  81. Which pulmonary condition is a result of low compliance of lung?
    Pulmonary fibrosis
  82. What does it mean when the lungs have low compliance?
    It takes a lot more pressure to distend the lungs because the lungs are hard
  83. Which pulmonary condition is a result of high compliance of lung?
  84. What does it mean when the lungs have high compliance?
    The lungs are floppy – would distend easily under pressure but unable to recoil back to its original size
  85. What is hysteresis?
    Difference in compliance between inflation and deflation
  86. Surface tension makes lung easier or harder to inflate?
  87. True/False: surface tension creates a collapsing pressure
  88. Smaller alveoli experience greater or lesser collapsing pressure?
  89. What is laplace’s law and what is it refer to?
    • Pressure is inversely related to radius
    • Collapsing pressure of alveoli
  90. How do alveoli overcome these collapsing pressure?
  91. Is alveoli compliance high or low at the start of inflation?
    Low because greater collapsing pressure when they are small
  92. Collapsed alveoli is called _____
  93. Which type of cell secrete surfactant?
    Type II alveolar cells
  94. Surfactant ____ surface tension
  95. True/False: much like a stretched rubber band, during inhalation, the elastic recoil force of the lungs increases
  96. True/false: lung expanding force increases during exhalation
  97. Elastance and compliance are (inversely/ directly) related
    • Inversely
    • High elastance = low compliance
    • Low elastance = high compliance
  98. What is the x and y axis of a compliance graph?
    • X axis is airway pressure
    • Y axis is volume
  99. Parasympathetic nerve effect on bronchiole smooth muscle?
  100. Sympathetic nerve promotes constriction or dilation of bronchioles?
  101. Breathing at higher lung volume, would decrease or increase resistance?
    Decrease—because of incomplete exhalations, keeping the airway more distended
  102. What lung volume results in greatest resistance?
  103. Resistance and volume are ____ proportional?
  104. Greatest resistance is in which sized bronchi?
    Medium sized due to turbulent flow
  105. True/False: bronchioles have the highest resistance?
    False; bronchioles are actually low resistant
  106. What kind of air flow is in small respiratory airways?
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