refers to the structure of the body and the relationship of its parts
the function of the living body and its parts
patient is lying face on his back
laying facedown on stomach
Lateral recumbent position(recovery)
Left or right side
The patient is lying on his back with his upper body elevated at a 45-60 degree angle
The patient is lying on his back with the upper body elevated at an angle less than 45 degrees
The pation is lying on his back with legs elevated higher than the head and body on an inclined plane
only feet and legs are elevated approximately 12 inches
Imaginary divisons of the body
a vertical plane that runs lengthwise and divides the body into right and left segments
Frontal or coronal plane
plane divides the body into front and back halves
Transverse or horizontal plane
plane is parallel with the ground and divides the body into upeer and lower halves. Also called axial plane
line drawn vertically through the middle of the patients body and continuing through the nose down the navel and to the ground between the legs
PAtient standing in profile, take a imaginary line vertically from the middle of the patients armpit down to the ankle
Visualize the normal anatomical position. An imaginary line horizontally through the patients waist.
Toward the head or above the point of reference
Toward the feet or below the reference point
towards the front
towards the back
Dorsal and Ventral planes
Dorsal means toward backbone, ventral means toward front (belly)
Towards the midline or center of body
To left or right of the midline, or away from the midline of the body
both sides of midline
near the point of reference
distant, or far from point of reference
center of each collarbones(clavicle)
center of armpit to ankle, standing in profile
Sole of foot
Palm of hand
connects bone to bone
connects muscle to bone, and various other connective tissues
Top, back, and sides of the skull plus the forehead. Consists of occipital, two parietal, two temporal, and frontal bones
fused bones of upper jaw
c1-c7(neck) The first seven vertebrae
T1-T12(upper back) The 12 thoracic vertebrae that are directly inferior to the cervical spine form the upper back.
L1-L5(Lower back) the next five vertebrae form the lower back
s1-s5(back wall of the pelvis) the next five vertebrae are fused together to form the rigid part of the posterior side of the pelvis
Tail Bone. The last four vertebrae are fused together and do not have the protrusions characteristic of the other vertebrae
Chest, is composed of the ribs, sternum(breastbone) and thoraqcic spine. Also holds the 24 ribs(12 pairs)
First seven pairs of ribs attached to the sternum by cartilage
last 5 pairs of ribs that are floating, not attached to the sternum
Doughnut shaped strucute that consists of several bones
Collar bone, attached to the superior portoin of the sternum
superior part of the sternum, where the clavicle attaches
inferior portion of the sternum
each side of the pelvis, forms "wings"
anterior and inferior portion of the pelvis
posterior and inferior portion of the pelvies
The joint made up of the pelvic socket, where the fermur fits
Tibia & Fibia
Shin Bone and posterior bone is fibia
5 bones that make up majority of foot
toe bones, 14 of them in all. two in big toe and 3 in the others
Shoulder bone, pairs up with the clavical bone to form a shoulder girdle
Largest arm bone, fits into shoulder blade
Radius and ulna
The radius is located on the thumb side, and the ulna is on the little finger side
bones of the wrist
bones of the hand
Bending toward the body or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
Straightening away from the body or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
Movement away from the midline
Movement toward the midline
A combination of the four motions as is possible with the shoulder joint
Turning the forearm so the palm of hand is turned toward the back
Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the front
Ball and socket joint
This type of joint permits the widest range of motions, ie shoulder joint.
Ie. elbow and knee
Ie vertebrae and wrist, allows a turning motion
the simplest movement between bones occurs in a gliding joint, where one bones slides across the other.
Ie Ankle joint moving up and down while slightly turned in
Modified ball and socket, ie wrist move up down side to side but not full rotations
Under the control of the brain and nervous system, voluntary muscle can be contracted and relaxed by will of the individual.
Involuntary muscle, is made up of large fibers that carry out the automatic muscular funtions through rythmic, wavelike movements. Ie intestines,
Found only in the walls of the heart, cardiac muscle is a special kind of involuntary muscle particularly suited for the work of the heart.
The ability to generate an impulse on its own, even when disconnected from the central nervous system. IE heart
The process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes, in and out of the alveoli, capillaries, and cells
For of respiration in which oxygen molecules move across a membrane from an area of high oxygen concentation to an area of low oxygen.
Is the mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs
portion of the pharynx where air enters through the mouth
Part of the pharynx where air from the nose enters
Leads to the stomach
Leads to the lungs
Anterior cartilage that covers the larynx
A firm, full ring of cartilage that forms the lower edge of the larynx
Small, leaveshaped flap that covers and protects the trachea
Distal portion of the trachea brances into two main tubes, or bronchi, one brancing off into each lung
subdivides of the bronchi, that continue into the lungs
Thousands of tiny airsacks that the bronchi lead into, where the actually site of gas exchanges
thing layer of connective tissue covering the outer surface of the lungs.
a tiny space with negative pressure that allows the lungs to stay inflated
a pwoerful, dome shaped muscle essential to breathing. Also seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
muscles between the ribs which help expand and contract the thoracic cavity.
A double walled sac that encloses the heart and prevents friction.
Upper chambers of the heart
Lower chambers of the heart. Pump blood out to the arteries
Between the right atrium and right ventricle
At the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle
Also known as the bicuspid valve, between the left atrium and the left ventricle
At the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle
The major artery from the heart, the aorta, lies in front of the spine and passes through the thoracic and adominal cavities.
The coronary arteries are the vessels that supply the heart itself with blood
Supply the brain and head with blood. Pulse of teh arteries can be felt on either side of the neck
The major artery of the thigh and supplies the groin and legs with blood.
Dorsalis pedis arteries
Pulsations of the dorsalis pedis, an artery in the foot, can be felt on the top surace of the foot on the big toe side.
Posterior tibial arteries
Calf to foot, can be felt on the ankle
the major artery of the upper arm, pulse can be felt at the front of the elbow and on the medial arm midway between the shoulder and elbow. used to asses a pulse on an infant
The radial artery is the major artery of the arm distal to the elbow joint. It's pulse can be felt proximal to the thumb on the wrist. Main pulse when checking a patient
The pulmonary arteries, which originate at the right ventricle of the heart, carry oxygen depleted blood to the lungs, where the blood is oxygenated and return to the heart for curculation. (This is the only arteries that carry deoxygenated blood)
the smallest version of artery
a tiny blood vessel that connets an areriole to a venule, allwing for the exhange of gases, nutrients, and waste at the cellular level,
smallest branch of veins, connected to the distal end of cappilaries
Carriers blood back to the heart
Carry oxygen depleted blood back the right atrium, where it beings circulation through the heart and lungs
superior vena cava
enter the top of the right atrium, carrying oxygen depleted blood from the upper body
inferior vena cava
brings oxygen-depleted blood into the bottom of the right atrium, from the lower body
carry oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium. only veins that carry oxygenated blood
Red blood cell
Red cells give the blood its color, carry oxygen to the body cells, and carry carbon dixoide away from the cells
White blood cells
Part of the immune system and help to defend against infection
Essential clotting factors, helps stop bleeding
Liquid part of blood and transports nutrients to all tissues
the force exerted by the blood on the interior walls of the arteris
systolic blood pressure
is exerted agasint the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle contracts. Measures the effectiveness of the pumping function of the left ventricle
diastolic blood pressure
is exerted agasint the walls of teh arteries then the left ventricle is at rest, or between contractions. Measures the resistance in the arteries between contractions
Force exerted on the inside of the vessel walls as a result of blood pressure and volume
capillaries being to leak fluid, which is water and not whole blood. feet literalls swell up and leak
is the delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients to the cells of all organ systems, and the elmination of carbon dioxide and other waste products, which results from the constant adequate circulation of blood through the capillaries
Shock, is the insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the bodys cells and the inadequate elimantion of carbon doixide and other wastes that result from inadequate circulation of blood.
controls the coluntary and involuntary
Central nervous system
consists of the brain, the spinal cord
a cushion of fluid that surrournds and protects the brain and spinal columb
The outermost portion of the brain, the cerebrum occupies nearly all the cranial cavity. controls specific body functions, such as sensation, thought, and associative memory
Called the small brain, located in the posterior and inferior aspect of the cranum. Coordinates muscle activity and maintains balance through impulses from the eyes and ears.
contains the repiratory center, the cardiac center, and the vasomotor center. the vasomotor center controls blood pressure by constricting and dilation of blood vessels
peripheral nervous system
composed of the nerves locatd outside the spinal cord and brain. ie sensation of touch/burn/cold
sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight, activated by stessors
parasympathetic nervous sytem
opposite to fight or flight, restors normal body functions, or depresses body function
Reticular activating system(RAS)
is made up of ductless glands, the body regularts. secretions from these glands are called hormones
Checmical substances that affect certain organs
which is located in the anterior neck, regulates metabolism, growth and development, and the activity of the nervous system.
The parathyroid glands
behind the thyroid glands, produce a hormone necessary for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the bones.
Sit atob the kidneys, secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, postpone muscle fatigue, increase storage of sugar, control kidney function, regulate the metabolism of stalt and water
islets of langerhans
in the pancreas, make insulin,which allows sugar to enter cells, and also produce glucagon, a hormone that raises the glucose level in the blood
at the base of the brain, considered to be the master gland. it regulates growth, the thyroid and parathyroid glands, panreas, the gonads, the metabolism of fatty acids and some basic proteins, blood sugar reactions and urinary extretion
Alpha1 and Beta hormones
Alpha constricts blood vessels, and beta dialates our lungs
outmost layer of skin
second layer of skin, much thicker than epidermis. contains the vast network of blood vessels that supply the skin
layer of fatty tissues below the dermis
composed of alimentary tract, and the accessory organs.
A large hollow organ, is the main organ of the digestive system. While digestion actually begins in the mouth, where saliva begins to break down foods, the majority of digestion takes place in the stomach, which secretes gastric juices that begin to converting ingested foods to a form that can be absorbed and used by the body.
is flat, solid organ that lies just inferior and posterior to the stomach. it secretes pancreatic juices that aid in the digestion of fats, starches, and proteins. the islets of langerhans, located int he pancreas, produce insulin that ruglates the amount of sugar in the blood stream.
Largest solid organ in the abdomen, lies immediately beneath the diaphragm in the right upper quadrants of the adominal cavity. The liver produces bile, which aids in the digestion of fat.
IT stores sugars until they are needed by the body. Also produces componets necessary for immune function. Toxic substances produced by digestion are rendered harmless in the liver
A solid organ located in the left upper quadrant of the adominal cavity. Help filtration of blood, and reservoir of blood the body can use in an emergency such as hermorhage.
A hollow pouch, part of the bile duct leading from the liver. The gallbladder acts as a reservoir for bile.
The small intestine
Made up of 3 parts, recieves food from the stomach and secretions from the pancreas and liver. Digestion of food continues int he small intestine, where food is completely broken down into a form that be used by the body. nutrients are absorbed through the walls and circulated through the blood stream
The large intestine
is also called the colon, parts of food that cannot be absorbed by the body are passed as waste products from the small intestine into the large intestine, where the water is absorbed, and whatever remains is passed as stool.
Mechinical process of digestion
chewing, swallowing, peristalsis(rythmic movement of matter through the digestive tract) and defication(Shitting)
Chemical process of digestions
occurs when enzymes break foods down into simple componets that can be absorbed and used by the body.
Renal system, and what it consists of
urinary stystem, filters and excretes wastes from the blood. contains two kidneys, two ureters, which carry the wastes from the kidneys to bladder, one urinarry bladder, which stores the piss, and one urethtra which cariers urine from the bladder and outside the body.
filter waste from the bloodstream and help control blood pressure regulation
Female reproductive system
two ovaries, two fallopian tues, the uterus, the vagina and external genitals.
The process of the heart contracting with electrical impulses
the electric impulse orignates ate the sinoatrial(SA) node and travles the the atrio ventricular(av) node, which is locatd between the ventricles, and finally throught the bodle of his to the purkinjke fibers to the ventricles.
Percentage the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contribute to inhalation.
diaphragm is 60-70 and intercostal picks up the reaminag 30-40