Neuro Ch 2

  1. nervous system
    • collection of nerve cells that transmit signals to and from different parts of the body 
    • enable animals to receive information from
    • the environment, process it, and act on it

    CNS + PNS
  2. central nervous system CNS
    • brain and spinal cord
    • grey and white matter
  3. peripheral nervous system PNS
    • spinal chord and rest of the body 
    • sensory, moto neurons
    • somatic vs autonomic nervous system
  4. sensory neurons
    receptors that convey sensory information to CNS

    • somatosensory neuron - environment to brain (touch, itch, vibrate) 
    • visceral sensory neuron -  extend into organs (pain, inflammation, fatigue)
  5. motor nueron
    • skeletal muscles, make contact at neuromuscular junction
    • output signals 

    • somatic motor neuron - output signal to skeletal muscle 
    • autonomic/visceral motor neuron - output signals to visceral organs (e.g HR, respiration)
  6. somatic nervous system
    • sensory inputs and motor outputs for guiding
    • voluntary body movements
    • somatic and somatosensory neuron
  7. autonomic nervous system
    • automatically regulates the body’s internal world
    • viceral sensory neurons and visceral (autonomic) motor neurons

    sympathetic vs parasympathetic nervous system
  8. sympathetic nervous system
    • "fight or flight” system; reacting to threats
    • or opportunities
    • increased HR, respiration, elevated BP, slow digestion
  9. parasympathetic nervous system
    • "rest and regenerate" 
    • slowed HR, lower BP, relaxed muscles
  10. segmental organisation
    • spinal cord protected by vertebrae
    • sensory neuron enter, motor neuron exit every vertebrae
    • sensory enter cord via dorsal nerve root
    • motor exit cord via ventral nerve root
  11. dermatome
    area of skin supplied by nerves by single spinal root
  12. myotome
    area controlled by nerve from single spinal root
  13. spinal cord
    meeting of inputs and outputs for PNS (part of CNS)
  14. grey matter
    cell bodies of neurons and their local connections
  15. white matter vs grey matter
    • white matter: electrically mylinated, long-distance connections/communication between neurons
    • grey matter: mostly neuron cell bodies and non-neuron brain cells called glial cells. These glial cells provide nutrients and energy to neurons
  16. spinal reflex
    a simple, automatic movement in response to a particular stimulus

    • monosynaptic: one connection b/t sensory and motor
    • polysynaptic: involve interneuron b/t sensory and motor
  17. What is the Brain
    • neuron - process and transmit info at the synapse 
    • glia cells ensure best environment 
    • nueron and glia get oxygen and glucose via vasculature
  18. brain stem
    • point of communication b/t spinal cord and higher brain regions
    • medulla, pons, midbrain
    • sensory function (travel here before cerebrum), viceral function (swallow digest), motor function (control of tongue, mouth, neck, head, and eyes)
  19. medulla
    • regulates involuntary essential functions 
    • e.g breathing and HR and BP
  20. pons
    • relays signals between the cerebellum and the cerebrum;
    • involved in arousal, sleep, breathing, swallowing, eye movement, facial expressions, equilibrium, posture
  21. cerebellum
    • shapes and refines the raw motor activity of reflexes and central pattern generators (spontaneously generate and maintain rhythmic movements such as walking) 
    • movement, balance, motor response AND cognition and emotion
  22. hypothalmus
    • internal homeostasis by comparing to "set point" and does compensatory mechanisms 
    • e.g. hunger, thirst, sexual arousal,
    • temperature regulation, sleep
    • master control for neuroendocrine system and sends to pituitary gland
  23. thalamus
    • relay station
    • conveys incoming sensory information to
    • cortical (processing) areas; relays motor signals to the cortex from cerebellum and basal ganglia; conveys signals between cortical areas
  24. cerebral cortex
    • outer covering of brain 
    • important for cognition
  25. basal ganglia
    • interconnected via grey matter structures under cerebral cortex 
    • important for motivation and reward

    cortico-striatal loops between the cortex & basal ganglia
  26. limbic system
    • set of regions involved in generating the hormonal, autonomic, and motivational
    • aspects of emotional states; involved in learning and memory
Card Set
Neuro Ch 2
cognitive neuroscience chapter 2