1. What is the appendicular skeleton?
    • Round the edges of the body 
    • limbs, shoulder, pelvic girdle
  2. what is the axial skeleton?
    • midpoint of the body 
    • skull, vertebral column, sternum and ribs
  3. What are the 4 bones in the cranium?
    • Frontal 
    • parietal 
    • temporal 
    • occipital
  4. what are the 2 types of skeleton?
    • Axial 
    • appendicular
  5. 5 types of bones and examples
    • long - femur 
    • sesmoid- patella 
    • irregular - vertebra 
    • flat- sternum 
    • short- carples
  6. What is the shaft of a bone called?
    Diaphysis
  7. What are the heads of the bone called?
    Epiphysis
  8. What are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?
    • Support
    • protection 
    • movement 
    • mineral storage 
    • blood cell production 
    • energy storage
  9. what are the bodies cavities?
    • Cranial 
    • Thoracic - diaphragm divides 
    • abdominal - continuous with pelvic 
    • pelvic
  10. what is an organ?
    • structure made up of different types of tissue
    • designed to carry out specific role
  11. what is a tumor?
    • mass of tissue growing in a fast and uncoordinated pattern 
    • benign- doesn't spread
    • malignant- spreads 
    • over 200 types of cancer 
    • can be spontaneous, inherited, exposed to carcinogen
  12. what is neuroglia?
    • acts as a supporting structure for a neuron
    • glia- holds something together
  13. what is a neuron?
    generates and transmits nerve impulses.
  14. what is nervous tissue?
    • specific to nervous system 
    • two types- neurons and neuroglia
  15. what is cardiac muscle?
    • involuntary 
    • only found in the heart wall (myocardium)
  16. what is smooth muscle?
    • involuntary 
    • walls of blood vessels and airways, bladder and ureters and GI tract.
  17. what is skeletal muscle?
    • voluntary 
    • moves our bones
  18. What is muscle tissue and what are the 4 types?
    • the ability to contract and relax 
    • provides movement 
    • skeletal 
    • smooth 
    • cardiac 
    • nervous
  19. what is connective tissue?
    • most abundant tissue 
    • structural and support 
    • provides elasticity and strength 
    • protects 
    • insulates 
    • acts as transporters 
    • e.g. adipose, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, airways, lungs, bones and blood.
  20. what are glands?
    • specialised secretion including hormones, mucus, saliva, digestive juices 
    • some glands secrete into the blood (endocirne) 
    • some glands secrete into the organs (exocrine)
  21. what are stratified epithelial tissues?
    • Found in places where it will need to stand up to wear and tear. 
    • skin, hair, nails, eyes, mouth, pharynx, oesphagus, vagina
  22. What are simple epithelial tissue?
    • Where diffusion, secretion and absorption take place. 
    • heart, blood vessels, lungs, kidneys, stomach, intestines.
  23. What is epithelial tissue?
    • protective covering 
    • lines cavities, tubes and organs
    • closely packed
    • single epithelial- simple epithelium- inner layer 
    • multi layer- stratified epithelium- outer surface. 
    • protects underlying structure.
  24. What are the 4 types of tissue?
    • Epithelial 
    • connective 
    • muscle 
    • nervous
  25. what are chromosomes and how many do humans have?
    • Carries genetic material 
    • 46- 23 pairs
  26. what are the feedback systems?
    • Negative- when a system in the body goes away from its normal point. 
    • positive e.g. breast feeding
  27. what are 5 different movements of substances within body fluids?
    • Passive- no energy required 
    • diffusion- movement of small solute 
    • osmosis- movement of water 
    • facilitated diffusion- solutes though cells, selective pathways 
    • active movement- requires energy
  28. what is extra and intra cellular fluid?
    • extra- outside the cells- 30% of bodies water 
    • intra- within cells- 70% of bodies water
  29. how much water in an average adult?
    • 40L 
    • makes up about 60% of their weight
    • lower in elderly and obese 
    • higher in babies and under weight adults.
  30. what is cytosol?
    • gel like consistency 
    • makes up most of the cell volume
  31. what are 5 organelles?
    • nucleus- control centre of the cell
    • mitochondria- powerhouse- provides energy for cell. 
    • lysosomes- waste removal from cell 
    • ribosomes (RNA) makes protein 
    • deoxyribonucleaic acid (DNA)- genetic make up
  32. what is a plasma membrane?
    • allows substances through 
    • selectively permeable 
    • 2 layers 
    • selective pathways
  33. What are the 3 different parts of the cell?
    • plasma membrane 
    • organelles 
    • cytosol
  34. What is a cell?
    • bodies smallest functioning unit 
    • grouped together to form tissue, organs, systems
    • each cell has same genetic make up
  35. what does a molecule consist of?
    • 2 or more atoms joined together. 
    • oxygen molecule- o2 element 
    • water molecule- h2o (compound) 
    • carbon dioxide- co2 (compound)
  36. What makes an atom?
    • nucleus in the middle 
    • protons and neutrons around it 
    • electrons around the outside 
    • atoms get their identity by number of protons.
  37. what makes up the body?
    atoms- molecules- cells (building blocks)-tissue- organs- system- human body.
  38. What is homeostasis?
    the normal body's ranges
Author
davidgoddard93
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