What is the appendicular skeleton?
- Round the edges of the body
- limbs, shoulder, pelvic girdle
what is the axial skeleton?
- midpoint of the body
- skull, vertebral column, sternum and ribs
What are the 4 bones in the cranium?
what are the 2 types of skeleton?
5 types of bones and examples
- long - femur
- sesmoid- patella
- irregular - vertebra
- flat- sternum
- short- carples
What is the shaft of a bone called?
What are the heads of the bone called?
What are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?
- mineral storage
- blood cell production
- energy storage
what are the bodies cavities?
- Thoracic - diaphragm divides
- abdominal - continuous with pelvic
what is an organ?
- structure made up of different types of tissue
- designed to carry out specific role
what is a tumor?
- mass of tissue growing in a fast and uncoordinated pattern
- benign- doesn't spread
- malignant- spreads
- over 200 types of cancer
- can be spontaneous, inherited, exposed to carcinogen
what is neuroglia?
- acts as a supporting structure for a neuron
- glia- holds something together
what is a neuron?
generates and transmits nerve impulses.
what is nervous tissue?
- specific to nervous system
- two types- neurons and neuroglia
what is cardiac muscle?
- only found in the heart wall (myocardium)
what is smooth muscle?
- walls of blood vessels and airways, bladder and ureters and GI tract.
what is skeletal muscle?
- moves our bones
What is muscle tissue and what are the 4 types?
- the ability to contract and relax
- provides movement
what is connective tissue?
- most abundant tissue
- structural and support
- provides elasticity and strength
- acts as transporters
- e.g. adipose, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, airways, lungs, bones and blood.
what are glands?
- specialised secretion including hormones, mucus, saliva, digestive juices
- some glands secrete into the blood (endocirne)
- some glands secrete into the organs (exocrine)
what are stratified epithelial tissues?
- Found in places where it will need to stand up to wear and tear.
- skin, hair, nails, eyes, mouth, pharynx, oesphagus, vagina
What are simple epithelial tissue?
- Where diffusion, secretion and absorption take place.
- heart, blood vessels, lungs, kidneys, stomach, intestines.
What is epithelial tissue?
- protective covering
- lines cavities, tubes and organs
- closely packed
- single epithelial- simple epithelium- inner layer
- multi layer- stratified epithelium- outer surface.
- protects underlying structure.
What are the 4 types of tissue?
what are chromosomes and how many do humans have?
- Carries genetic material
- 46- 23 pairs
what are the feedback systems?
- Negative- when a system in the body goes away from its normal point.
- positive e.g. breast feeding
what are 5 different movements of substances within body fluids?
- Passive- no energy required
- diffusion- movement of small solute
- osmosis- movement of water
- facilitated diffusion- solutes though cells, selective pathways
- active movement- requires energy
what is extra and intra cellular fluid?
- extra- outside the cells- 30% of bodies water
- intra- within cells- 70% of bodies water
how much water in an average adult?
- makes up about 60% of their weight
- lower in elderly and obese
- higher in babies and under weight adults.
what is cytosol?
- gel like consistency
- makes up most of the cell volume
what are 5 organelles?
- nucleus- control centre of the cell
- mitochondria- powerhouse- provides energy for cell.
- lysosomes- waste removal from cell
- ribosomes (RNA) makes protein
- deoxyribonucleaic acid (DNA)- genetic make up
what is a plasma membrane?
- allows substances through
- selectively permeable
- 2 layers
- selective pathways
What are the 3 different parts of the cell?
- plasma membrane
What is a cell?
- bodies smallest functioning unit
- grouped together to form tissue, organs, systems
- each cell has same genetic make up
what does a molecule consist of?
- 2 or more atoms joined together.
- oxygen molecule- o2 element
- water molecule- h2o (compound)
- carbon dioxide- co2 (compound)
What makes an atom?
- nucleus in the middle
- protons and neutrons around it
- electrons around the outside
- atoms get their identity by number of protons.
what makes up the body?
atoms- molecules- cells (building blocks)-tissue- organs- system- human body.
What is homeostasis?
the normal body's ranges