Oscillation II Pt II

  1. What is the linear wave equation?
    Image Upload 1
  2. The linear wave equation applies (restate) in general to various types of ________ waves. y represents various positions. What does it represent:
    For a string
    For a sound wave
    For EM waves
    • traveling waves
    • Image Upload 2
    • Image Upload 3
  3. Wave Motion on a String
    The string is under tension T. Consider one small string element of length Ds. State the formula (3) for the net force acting in the y direction:
    Image Upload 4
    Image Upload 5
  4. The formula for net force acting in the y direction (restate) uses the ______ ______ approximation. What is the formula for m, Δs, v (the wave speed of the wave), μ and t(time)
    • Image Upload 6
    • small angle approximation
    • Image Upload 7
    • μ:
    • m = ρv = ρAL(length)
    • μ = m/L = ρV = ρA(Area)
    • t = L/v
    • **1) T is for tension and 2) If dealing with diameter, represent radius as d/2
  5. Image Upload 8
  6. State an example of a two-dimensional wave and a three-dimensional wave
    • Two-dimensional wave: circular wave such as ocean waves
    • Three-dimensional wave: spherical waves such as waves emit from loudspeakers and lightbulbs
  7. Wave fronts are the _____ of the wave. They are spaced ______ wavelength(s) apart. The circular wave fronts move ______ from the source at speed v. Very far away from the source, small sections of the wave fronts appear to be ______ lines
    • crests
    • one wavelength
    • outward
    • straight
    • Image Upload 9
  8. What is the phase of the wave Φ?
    What is the formula for phase difference ΔΦ? (6)
    • Phase of the wave Φ = (kx - ωt + Φ0)
    • Image Upload 10
  9. Phase difference between two points on a wave depends on only the ratio of their separation Δx to the _________, (__).
    Image Upload 11
    wavelength, (λ)
  10. Image Upload 12
    • Minimum is 0 so it can't be c or d
    • The answer is (b) because we are plotting time, we will start from the specified point and ask does the pulse affect this point (considering the direction)
    • **If this was left, the answer would be flat at the t-axis
    • 2nd explanation: 

    • The point is at rest before and after the wave passes through it, and when wave reaches there it suddenly moves upwards (to emulate the part of the wave that hits it first) and then slowly moves downwards till the wave goes. This is shown in B.
    • **If this was left, the answer would be flat at the t-axis
  11. Image Upload 13
  12. Image Upload 14
    • v = (Δxdistance/Δttime) = λf = λ /T = (√T/μ)
    • 1st graph: 
    • λ = 0.6m
    • 2nd graph: 
    • T = 0.2s 
    • v = λ/T = (0.6m/0.2s) 
    • B.) v = 3.0 m/s
  13. Sound waves in gases and liquids are always ________ waves, but sound waves in solids can be either _________ or ________. They travel through any ______ ______ (give 3 examples).
    • longitudinal waves
    • longitudinal or transverse 
    • material medium (including solid, liquid, and gas states)
  14. Longitudinal sound waves can be construed as _______ waves, they comprise of ____ (_______) and _____ (_________) pressure regions
    • pressure waves
    • high (compression) and low (rarefactions)
  15. The loudspeaker cone moves back and forth creating regions of ______ and _______ pressure aka ________ and ________. The sound wave is a ________ wave. Compressions are ______ and rarefactions are _______.
    • higher and lower
    • compressions and rarefactions
    • pressure wave
    • crests 
    • troughs
  16. Label the diagrams
    Image Upload 15
    Image Upload 16
    Image Upload 17
    Image Upload 18
  17. A sound wave may be considered either a _______ wave or a _______ wave. The pressure wave is _____ out of phase with the displacement 
    Image Upload 19
    • displacement wave
    • pressure wave
    • 90°
  18. The mathematical description of sinusoidal sound waves is very similar to sinusoidal waves on a string. State the formula for displacement of a small element in both right and left direction. Explain the components of the equations
    Image Upload 20
  19. The variation ΔP in the pressure of the gas as measured from its equilibrium value is also sinusoidal. What is the formula ΔP  (moving in either direction)?
    Define DPmax
    Image Upload 21
  20. The pressure amplitude is proportional to the ________ amplitude. State the proportionality (and explain each component):
    ΔPmax =
    • displacement amplitude
    • Image Upload 22
  21. The speed of the wave depends on the properties of the _______. Its speed depends on 2 things, name them
    • medium
    • 1) The medium's resistance to compression (or deformation of the medium)
    • 2) Density of the medium
  22. The greater the resistance to compression, the _______ the sound will travel in the medium. The greater the density of the medium, the _______ sound will travel. In general, sound travels _______ through gases, then liquids, and _______ through solids
    • faster
    • slower
    • slowest
    • fastest
  23. The speed of sound waves depends on the properties of the _______. Sound waves in air depends on ________. State the formula for velocity or speed of a sound wave and explain the component. 
    Finally what is the speed of sound in air at 20°C?
    • medium
    • temperature
    • Image Upload 23
  24. State two kinds of speed or velocity. Explain both and state their formula for one
    Which is is constant in a uniform medium
    Image Upload 24
  25. Define Light waves 
    Being self-sustaining means it requires no _____ ______. All electromagnetic waves travel through a vacuum with the same ______. What is this value called and what is its numerical value?
    • Light waves: a self-sustaining oscillation of the electromagnetic field
    • material medium
    • speed
    • vlight = c = 299792458 m/s
  26. Various types of electromagnetic (EM) waves make up the _____ ______. There is no sharp division between one kind of _____ wave and the next. There are overlaps between types of waves. Visible light is a small portion of the _______. Types are distinguished by ________ or ________. Frequency ________, as wavelength ________
    • EM spectrum
    • EM wave 
    • spectrum
    • frequency or wavelength
    • increases
    • decreases
  27. Adjacent wave types exhibit some _______ of frequencies. Explain or give examples:
    • overlap
    • Image Upload 25
  28. Part of the spectrum detected by the human eye are from _____ nm to _____ nm. Different wavelengths correspond to different ________. State the range
    • 400 nm 
    • 700 nm 
    • colors
    • The range is from red (I~ 7*10-7 m) to violet (I~4*10-7m)
    • Image Upload 26
  29. Light waves travel with speed c in a _______, but they slow down as they pass through transparent materials. The speed of light in a material is characterized by the material's _______ ____ _______, (__)
    • vacuum
    • index of refraction, (n)
  30. What is the formula for index of refraction (2)
    What are the implications if we are in a vacuum or in another medium?
    Image Upload 27
  31. State the TWO BIG RULES for Waves
    • Image Upload 28
    • Image Upload 29
  32. The speed of a wave is determined by the type of ______ and the characteristics of the _______, not by the _________. This applies to different waves in one _______. For instance, sound and light both travel in air, but at different _______. Since v = _____, and the wave speed does NOT depend on _______, thus, if frequency changes, it only affects the _______ and not _____ _____
    • wave
    • medium
    • frequency 
    • medium
    • speed
    • v = λf
    • frequency
    • wavelength λ
    • wave speed, v
  33. When a wave passes into another medium, its speed _______, but its frequency ______ _____. Frequency of a wave is the _________ of the source. Similar to continuity equation: rate in = _____ _____. Applies to a single wave in different _______. In different medium, the wave speed ______. Since v = ____, thus wave will undergo a different wavelength in _______ medium
    • changes
    • does not 
    • frequency
    • rate in = rate out
    • media 
    • changes 
    • v = λf
    • different
Card Set
Oscillation II Pt II
Oscillation II Pt II