# Oscillations II Pt I

 In wave motion, _______ is transferred over a distance. The medium itself is not transported, just the _______. A disturbance is transferred through ______ without an accompanying transfer of ______ energy energyspace matter All waves carry _______. The amount of energy and the mechanism responsible for the _______ of the energy differ energytransport What are the three classifications of waves Mechanical wavesElectromagnetic wavesMatter waves Define (also state the necessary medium) each type of wave and state at least 2 examples for each Mechanical waves: A series of disturbances (i.e. oscillations) within a material medium that transfers energy from one place to another. Ex: vibrating string, sound waves, water wavesElectromagnetic waves: No medium required. Can travel through a vacuum. Self sustaining oscillation. Ex: light, radio waves, x-raysMatter waves: Basic for quantum physics. Ex: Electrons and atoms have wave-like characteristics When the particles of the medium are displaced from equilibrium, this is a _________ (define) of the medium. Disturbance: an organized motion of the particles in the medium, in contrast to the random molecular motions of thermal energy State 3 requirements for all mechanical waves Some source of disturbanceA medium that can be disturbed Some physical mechanism through which elements of the medium can influence each other. A requirement for mechanical waves is the presence of some physical mechanism through which elements of the medium can influence each other. What does this requirement ensure? This requirement ensures that the disturbance will, in fact, propagate through the medium Define a Traveling wave  What are the two types? Traveling wave: an organized disturbance traveling with a well-defined wave speed (propagation speed). Two types of traveling waves (base on the motion direction):Transverse waveLongitudinal wave A traveling wave or ______ that causes the elements of the disturbed medium to move _________ to the direction of propagation is called a transverse wave. The direction of any element at a point P on the string is __________ to the direction of propagation (red arrow) pulse perpendicular perpendicular red arrow Define a longitudinal wave Longitudinal wave: A traveling wave or pulse that causes the elements of the disturbed medium to move parallel to the direction of propagation The displacement of the coils is ______ to the propagation. The hand moves forward and back once to create a ________ ________. As the pulse passes by, the displacement of the coils is ______ to the direction of the propagation parallellongitudinal wavesparallel Differences (2) between Oscillation and Wave Oscillation only describes the motion of one single particle. The particle only in one place at a timeWaves spread out through space at each instant of time and thus not localized To describe the wave mathematically, it requires two parts. Name and characterize each Temporal: time dependentSpatial: position dependent The wave moves without ________ ______. The wave moves forward, Δx = ____ during time interval Δt changing shape Δx = vΔt Consider the shape of a pulse on a rope at t = 0. The shape can be represented by D(x,0) = f(x) This describes the ________, (__) of the the element of the string located at each value of x at t = 0 displacement, (D)**x is the position and 0 is the time The speed of the pulse is v. At some time, t, the pulse has traveled a distance vt. The shape of the pulse _____ _____ _____. Its position is now D(x,t) = ________ does not changeD(x,t) = D(x - vt, 0) At some later time t, the shape of the pulse remains ________ and the vertical position of an element of the medium at any point P is given by D = _______ unchangedD = f(x - vt) At some time, t, the wave has traveled a distance vt. Since the wave can propagate either to the ______ or to the ______, it can be presented by ____ or ____ respectively. right or to the left-vt or +vt Pulse traveling to the right (+ve axis direction) D(x,t) = ________ Pulse traveling to the left (-ve axis direction) D(x,t) = ________ D(x,t) = f(x - vt)D(x,t) = f(x + vt) The function D is also called the _____ function. The _____ function represents the D coordinate of any element located at position x and time t. The D coordinate is the _______ position. If t is fixed (______ the time) then the wave function is called the _______. It defines a curve representing the actual _________ shape of the pulse at that time wave functionwave function transverse position freeze the timewaveformgeometric shape The crest of the wave is the location of the ________ displacement of the element from its normal position (or ______ point). This distance is called the ________, (__). What is a trough? Label the diagram maximum displacementequilibrium pointamplitude, (A)Trough: point at the negative amplitude Define the wavelength Generally, the wavelength is the ________ distance between any two identical points on ______ waves. It also represents _____ ______ ______ (or equivalent to ____) Wavelength, λ: the distance from one crest to the nextminimumadjacent waves 1 complete loop 2π Define period The minimum time it takes a particle of the _______ to undergo 1 complete _______; T = 1/f Period, T: The time interval required for two identical points of adjacent waves to pass by a point mediumoscillation Define frequency The frequency, f: the number of crests (or any point on the wave) that pass a given point in a unit time interval The frequency of the wave is the same as the frequency of the _______ _______ ______ of one element of the medium. When the time interval is the second, the units of frequency are ____ or ____. Frequency can be thought as the number of ______ that pass a given point per unit time and period is the time it takes between ______ simple harmonic motion s-1 or Hertz (Hz)pulses pulses A wave moves forward a distance of one wavelength during a time interval of _____ ______. State 3 formulas for wave speed or _______ speed: one periodpropagation speedv = distance/time = λ/T = λf _____ _____ is a property of the medium (i.e. depend on medium) and _______ is a property of the source. Thus, what is wavelength, λ a consequence of? Wave speedfrequencyA wave of frequency, f traveling through a medium in which the wave speed is v. Waves travel with a specific speed, v. The speed depends on the properties of the ________ being disrupted. State the formula for wave function D(x,t): This is for a wave moving to the ______ How do we represent a wave moving in the opposite direction? medium Whats the formula (3) for wave speed? What is the formula for D(x,t) v = Δx/Δt = λ/T State the formulas for: Angular wave number Angular frequency Wave speed D(x,t) (how do we identify the initial phase constant) Define Wave speed Transverse velocity, (vy) of an element of the string varies ___________ State the formula for vy,max   State the formula for maximum values of the transverse speed and transverse acceleration magnitude vy,max = ωAay,max = ω2A The transverse speed and acceleration do not reach their maximum values simultaneously.  v is maximum at y = ___  a is a maximum at y = ____ y = 0y = ±A**Similar to simple harmonic oscillation Authorchikeokjr ID345321 Card SetOscillations II Pt I DescriptionOscillations II Pt I Updated2019-02-19T01:30:26Z Show Answers