
In wave motion, _______ is transferred over a distance. The medium itself is not transported, just the _______. A disturbance is transferred through ______ without an accompanying transfer of ______
 energy
 energy
 space
 matter

All waves carry _______. The amount of energy and the mechanism responsible for the _______ of the energy differ

What are the three classifications of waves
 Mechanical waves
 Electromagnetic waves
 Matter waves

Define (also state the necessary medium) each type of wave and state at least 2 examples for each
 Mechanical waves: A series of disturbances (i.e. oscillations) within a material medium that transfers energy from one place to another. Ex: vibrating string, sound waves, water waves
 Electromagnetic waves: No medium required. Can travel through a vacuum. Self sustaining oscillation. Ex: light, radio waves, xrays
 Matter waves: Basic for quantum physics. Ex: Electrons and atoms have wavelike characteristics

When the particles of the medium are displaced from equilibrium, this is a _________ (define) of the medium.
Disturbance: an organized motion of the particles in the medium, in contrast to the random molecular motions of thermal energy

State 3 requirements for all mechanical waves
 Some source of disturbance
 A medium that can be disturbed
 Some physical mechanism through which elements of the medium can influence each other.

A requirement for mechanical waves is the presence of some physical mechanism through which elements of the medium can influence each other. What does this requirement ensure?
This requirement ensures that the disturbance will, in fact, propagate through the medium

Define a Traveling wave
What are the two types?
 Traveling wave: an organized disturbance traveling with a welldefined wave speed (propagation speed).
 Two types of traveling waves (base on the motion direction):
 Transverse wave
 Longitudinal wave

A traveling wave or ______ that causes the elements of the disturbed medium to move _________ to the direction of propagation is called a transverse wave. The direction of any element at a point P on the string is __________ to the direction of propagation (red arrow)
 pulse
 perpendicular
 perpendicular
 red arrow

Define a longitudinal wave
Longitudinal wave: A traveling wave or pulse that causes the elements of the disturbed medium to move parallel to the direction of propagation

The displacement of the coils is ______ to the propagation. The hand moves forward and back once to create a ________ ________. As the pulse passes by, the displacement of the coils is ______ to the direction of the propagation
 parallel
 longitudinal waves
 parallel

Differences (2) between Oscillation and Wave
 Oscillation only describes the motion of one single particle. The particle only in one place at a time
 Waves spread out through space at each instant of time and thus not localized

To describe the wave mathematically, it requires two parts. Name and characterize each
 Temporal: time dependent
 Spatial: position dependent

The wave moves without ________ ______. The wave moves forward, Δx = ____ during time interval Δt
 changing shape
 Δx = vΔt

Consider the shape of a pulse on a rope at t = 0. The shape can be represented by D(x,0) = f(x)
This describes the ________, (__) of the the element of the string located at each value of x at t = 0
 displacement, (D)
 **x is the position and 0 is the time

The speed of the pulse is v. At some time, t, the pulse has traveled a distance vt. The shape of the pulse _____ _____ _____. Its position is now D(x,t) = ________
 does not change
 D(x,t) = D(x  vt, 0)

At some later time t, the shape of the pulse remains ________ and the vertical position of an element of the medium at any point P is given by D = _______

At some time, t, the wave has traveled a distance vt. Since the wave can propagate either to the ______ or to the ______, it can be presented by ____ or ____ respectively.
 right or to the left
 vt or +vt

Pulse traveling to the right (+ve axis direction)
D(x,t) = ________
Pulse traveling to the left (ve axis direction)
D(x,t) = ________
 D(x,t) = f(x  vt)
 D(x,t) = f(x + vt)

The function D is also called the _____ function. The _____ function represents the D coordinate of any element located at position x and time t. The D coordinate is the _______ position. If t is fixed (______ the time) then the wave function is called the _______. It defines a curve representing the actual _________ shape of the pulse at that time
 wave function
 wave function
 transverse position
 freeze the time
 waveform
 geometric shape

The crest of the wave is the location of the ________ displacement of the element from its normal position (or ______ point). This distance is called the ________, (__). What is a trough?
Label the diagram
 maximum displacement
 equilibrium point
 amplitude, (A)
 Trough: point at the negative amplitude

Define the wavelength
Generally, the wavelength is the ________ distance between any two identical points on ______ waves. It also represents _____ ______ ______ (or equivalent to ____)
 Wavelength, λ: the distance from one crest to the next
 minimum
 adjacent waves
 1 complete loop
 2π

Define period
The minimum time it takes a particle of the _______ to undergo 1 complete _______; T = 1/f
 Period, T: The time interval required for two identical points of adjacent waves to pass by a point
 medium
 oscillation

Define frequency
The frequency, f: the number of crests (or any point on the wave) that pass a given point in a unit time interval

The frequency of the wave is the same as the frequency of the _______ _______ ______ of one element of the medium. When the time interval is the second, the units of frequency are ____ or ____. Frequency can be thought as the number of ______ that pass a given point per unit time and period is the time it takes between ______
 simple harmonic motion
 s^{1} or Hertz (Hz)
 pulses
 pulses

A wave moves forward a distance of one wavelength during a time interval of _____ ______. State 3 formulas for wave speed or _______ speed:
 one period
 propagation speed
 v = distance/time = λ/T = λf

_____ _____ is a property of the medium (i.e. depend on medium) and _______ is a property of the source. Thus, what is wavelength, λ a consequence of?
 Wave speed
 frequency
 A wave of frequency, f traveling through a medium in which the wave speed is v.

Waves travel with a specific speed, v. The speed depends on the properties of the ________ being disrupted. State the formula for wave function
D(x,t):
This is for a wave moving to the ______
How do we represent a wave moving in the opposite direction?
 medium

Whats the formula (3) for wave speed?
What is the formula for D(x,t)
 v = Δx/Δt = λ/T

State the formulas for:
Angular wave number
Angular frequency
Wave speed
D(x,t) (how do we identify the initial phase constant)

Define Wave speed
Transverse velocity, (v_{y}) of an element of the string varies ___________
State the formula for v_{y,max}



State the formula for maximum values of the transverse speed and transverse acceleration magnitude
 v_{y,max} = ωA
 a_{y,max} = ω^{2}A

The transverse speed and acceleration do not reach their maximum values simultaneously.
v is maximum at y = ___
a is a maximum at y = ____
 y = 0
 y = ±A
 **Similar to simple harmonic oscillation

