Oscillations II Pt I

  1. In wave motion, _______ is transferred over a distance. The medium itself is not transported, just the _______. A disturbance is transferred through ______ without an accompanying transfer of ______
    • energy 
    • energy
    • space 
    • matter
  2. All waves carry _______. The amount of energy and the mechanism responsible for the _______ of the energy differ
    • energy
    • transport
  3. What are the three classifications of waves
    • Mechanical waves
    • Electromagnetic waves
    • Matter waves
  4. Define (also state the necessary medium) each type of wave and state at least 2 examples for each
    • Mechanical waves: A series of disturbances (i.e. oscillations) within a material medium that transfers energy from one place to another. Ex: vibrating string, sound waves, water waves
    • Electromagnetic waves: No medium required. Can travel through a vacuum. Self sustaining oscillation. Ex: light, radio waves, x-rays
    • Matter waves: Basic for quantum physics. Ex: Electrons and atoms have wave-like characteristics
  5. When the particles of the medium are displaced from equilibrium, this is a _________ (define) of the medium.
    Disturbance: an organized motion of the particles in the medium, in contrast to the random molecular motions of thermal energy
  6. State 3 requirements for all mechanical waves
    • Some source of disturbance
    • A medium that can be disturbed 
    • Some physical mechanism through which elements of the medium can influence each other.
  7. A requirement for mechanical waves is the presence of some physical mechanism through which elements of the medium can influence each other. What does this requirement ensure?
    This requirement ensures that the disturbance will, in fact, propagate through the medium
  8. Define a Traveling wave 
    What are the two types?
    • Traveling wave: an organized disturbance traveling with a well-defined wave speed (propagation speed). 
    • Two types of traveling waves (base on the motion direction):
    • Transverse wave
    • Longitudinal wave
  9. A traveling wave or ______ that causes the elements of the disturbed medium to move _________ to the direction of propagation is called a transverse wave. The direction of any element at a point P on the string is __________ to the direction of propagation (red arrow)
    • pulse
    • perpendicular 
    • perpendicular 
    • red arrow 
    • Image Upload 1
  10. Define a longitudinal wave
    Longitudinal wave: A traveling wave or pulse that causes the elements of the disturbed medium to move parallel to the direction of propagation
  11. The displacement of the coils is ______ to the propagation. The hand moves forward and back once to create a ________ ________. As the pulse passes by, the displacement of the coils is ______ to the direction of the propagation 
    Image Upload 2
    • parallel
    • longitudinal waves
    • parallel 
    • Image Upload 3
  12. Differences (2) between Oscillation and Wave
    • Oscillation only describes the motion of one single particle. The particle only in one place at a time
    • Waves spread out through space at each instant of time and thus not localized
  13. To describe the wave mathematically, it requires two parts. Name and characterize each
    • Temporal: time dependent
    • Spatial: position dependent
  14. The wave moves without ________ ______. The wave moves forward, Δx = ____ during time interval Δt
    Image Upload 4
    • changing shape 
    • Δx = vΔt
    • Image Upload 5
  15. Consider the shape of a pulse on a rope at t = 0. The shape can be represented by D(x,0) = f(x)
    This describes the ________, (__) of the the element of the string located at each value of x at t = 0
    • displacement, (D)
    • **x is the position and 0 is the time
    • Image Upload 6
  16. The speed of the pulse is v. At some time, t, the pulse has traveled a distance vt. The shape of the pulse _____ _____ _____. Its position is now D(x,t) = ________
    • does not change
    • D(x,t) = D(x - vt, 0)
  17. At some later time t, the shape of the pulse remains ________ and the vertical position of an element of the medium at any point P is given by D = _______
    Image Upload 7
    • unchanged
    • D = f(x - vt)
  18. At some time, t, the wave has traveled a distance vt. Since the wave can propagate either to the ______ or to the ______, it can be presented by ____ or ____ respectively.
    • right or to the left
    • -vt or +vt
  19. Pulse traveling to the right (+ve axis direction)
    D(x,t) = ________
    Pulse traveling to the left (-ve axis direction)
    D(x,t) = ________
    • D(x,t) = f(x - vt)
    • D(x,t) = f(x + vt)
  20. The function D is also called the _____ function. The _____ function represents the D coordinate of any element located at position x and time t. The D coordinate is the _______ position. If t is fixed (______ the time) then the wave function is called the _______. It defines a curve representing the actual _________ shape of the pulse at that time
    • wave function
    • wave function 
    • transverse position 
    • freeze the time
    • waveform
    • geometric shape
  21. The crest of the wave is the location of the ________ displacement of the element from its normal position (or ______ point). This distance is called the ________, (__). What is a trough?
    Label the diagram
    Image Upload 8
    • maximum displacement
    • equilibrium point
    • amplitude, (A)
    • Trough: point at the negative amplitude 
    • Image Upload 9
  22. Define the wavelength
    Generally, the wavelength is the ________ distance between any two identical points on ______ waves. It also represents _____ ______ ______ (or equivalent to ____)
    • Wavelength, λ: the distance from one crest to the next
    • minimum
    • adjacent waves 
    • 1 complete loop 
    • Image Upload 10
  23. Define period
    The minimum time it takes a particle of the _______ to undergo 1 complete _______; T = 1/f
    • Period, T: The time interval required for two identical points of adjacent waves to pass by a point 
    • medium
    • oscillation
    • Image Upload 11
  24. Define frequency
    The frequency, f: the number of crests (or any point on the wave) that pass a given point in a unit time interval
  25. The frequency of the wave is the same as the frequency of the _______ _______ ______ of one element of the medium. When the time interval is the second, the units of frequency are ____ or ____. Frequency can be thought as the number of ______ that pass a given point per unit time and period is the time it takes between ______
    • simple harmonic motion 
    • s-1 or Hertz (Hz)
    • pulses 
    • pulses
  26. A wave moves forward a distance of one wavelength during a time interval of _____ ______. State 3 formulas for wave speed or _______ speed:
    • one period
    • propagation speed
    • v = distance/time = λ/T = λf
  27. _____ _____ is a property of the medium (i.e. depend on medium) and _______ is a property of the source. Thus, what is wavelength, λ a consequence of?
    • Wave speed
    • frequency
    • A wave of frequency, f traveling through a medium in which the wave speed is v.
  28. Waves travel with a specific speed, v. The speed depends on the properties of the ________ being disrupted. State the formula for wave function

    This is for a wave moving to the ______
    How do we represent a wave moving in the opposite direction?
    • medium 
    • Image Upload 12
  29. Whats the formula (3) for wave speed?
    What is the formula for D(x,t)
    • v = Δx/Δt = λ/T
    • Image Upload 13
  30. State the formulas for:
    Angular wave number
    Angular frequency
    Wave speed
    D(x,t) (how do we identify the initial phase constant)
    Image Upload 14
  31. Define Wave speed
    Transverse velocity, (vy) of an element of the string varies ___________
    State the formula for vy,max
    Image Upload 15
  32. Image Upload 16
  33. Image Upload 17
  34. State the formula for maximum values of the transverse speed and transverse acceleration magnitude
    • vy,max = ωA
    • ay,max = ω2A
  35. The transverse speed and acceleration do not reach their maximum values simultaneously. 
    v is maximum at y = ___ 
    a is a maximum at y = ____
    • y = 0
    • y = ±A
    • **Similar to simple harmonic oscillation
Card Set
Oscillations II Pt I
Oscillations II Pt I