reality is often organized reduced to simplest form possible (Ex. Olympic rings)
transparent thick sheet of tissue, anterior 1/6th.
space filled with aqueous humour, which provides pressure to maintain shape of eyeball
whites of the eye, thick fibrous tissue that covers posterior 5/6th of eyeball. Attachment point for muscles.
pigmented black in humans, a network of blood vessels. Bc black all light is reflected.
⦁ Rods contain rhodopsin, cones have similar protein ________.
whats more sensitive to light, rods or cones?
⦁ Rods have _______ recovery time, cones have ______ recovery time. Takes a while to adjust to dark – rods need to be reactivated.
slow - rods (more of them than cones. Takes a while to adjust to dark – rods need to be reactivated)
fast - cones
cones mostly found in ____
⦁ We can hear between ______ Hz.
20-20000 Hz (human hearing)
⦁ ________ is talking about movement of the body. _______ was cognitive awareness of body in space. ______ is more behavioural.
⦁ _______ does not include sense of balance, while _______ does.
- ⦁ Kinaesthesia is talking about movement of the body. Proprioception was cognitive awareness of body in space. Kinaesthesia is more behavioural.
- ⦁ Kinaesthesia does not include sense of balance, while proprioception does.
Types of fibres
⦁_______ - Fast ones are thick and covered in myelin (less resistance, high conductance)
⦁ ______ -– smaller diameter, less myelin.
⦁ _____ - small diameter, unmyelinated (lingering sense of pain).
- ⦁ A-beta fibres - Fast ones are thick and covered in myelin (less resistance, high conductance)
- ⦁ A-delta fibres -– smaller diameter, less myelin.
- ⦁ C fibres - small diameter, unmyelinated (lingering sense of pain).
⦁ We have 5 main tastes, localized on the tongue – bitter, salty, sweet, sour, and umami (ability to taste glutamate).
⦁ Taste buds are concentrated anteriorly on the tongue. Taste buds can be _____ (anterior), _____ (side), and _______ (back).
⦁ In each taste bud are the 5 receptor cells that can detect each taste. Each taste can be detected anywhere on the tongue.
⦁ Mostly on anterior part of tongue.
fungiform (anterior), foliate (side), and circumvallate (back).
sour and salty rely on _______
sweet, bitter , umami rely on ____
ion channels - salty and sour
GPCR - sweet, bitter, umami
⦁ _____ (13-30Hz) – associated with awake/concentration. Increased stress, anxiety, restlessness. Constant alertness.
⦁ ____ (8-13 Hz) – in daydreaming. Disappear in drowsiness but reappear in deep sleep. During relaxation.
⦁ _____ (7 Hz) – Drowsiness, right after you fall asleep.
⦁ ____ (0.5-3 Hz) - Deep sleep or coma.
⦁ N1 (Stage 1)– Dominated by _____ waves. Strange sensations – _____ hallucinations, hearing or seeing things that aren’t there, ex. Seeing flash of light, or someone calling your name, doorbell, etc. Or the Tetris effect – if you play Tetris right before bed, you might see blocks. Also a feeling of falling – _____ jerks.
Stage 2) – deeper stage of sleep. People in N2 are harder to awaken. We see more _____ waves, as well as _____ and _____
sleep spindles and K-complexes.
⦁ ______ help inhibit certain perceptions so we maintain a tranquil state during sleep. These in some parts of brain associated with ability to sleep through loud noises.
⦁ ______ supress cortical arousal and keep you asleep. Also help sleep-based memory consolidation. Even though they occur naturally, you can also make them occur by touching someone sleeping.
⦁ N3 (Stage 3) – slow wave sleep. Characterized by _____ waves. Where walking/talking in sleep happens.
⦁ ______ stage. Most of your other muscles are paralyzed. Most dreaming occurs during this stage of sleep, so paralysation inhibits actions. Most important for memory consolidation. Combination of alpha, beta, and desynchronous waves, similar to beta waves seen when awake.
REM (rapid-eye movement)
REM sleep is sometimes called
⦁ Waking up during REM sleep prevents memory formation of the dream. TRUE OR FALSE
paradoxical sleep, because brain is active and awake but body prevents it from doing anything.
⦁ ______ – why you get sleepy in afternoon. They’re our regular body rhythms across 24-hour period. Controlled by _____, produced in the ____ gland.
⦁ Control our body temperature, sleep cycle, etc.
⦁ Daylight is big queue, even artificial light.
⦁ Also change as you age – younger people are night owls, but older people go to bed early.
why do things in our dreams defy logic? activity of what is decreased during dreaming/ REM sleep?
prefrontal cortex activity decreased and prefrontal cortex responsible for logic
What actually happens is the _____ content and the hidden meaning is the _____ content
What theory or hypothesis is this?
Brain gets a lot of neural impulses in brainstem, which is sometimes interpreted by the frontal cortex. Our brain is simply trying to find meaning from random brain activity. Therefore might not have meaning
Activation Synthesis Hypothesis
Brainstem = activation, and cortex = synthesis.
sleep deprivation causes 3 things
- - poor memory
- - obesity (body makes more cortisol, and the hunger hormone.)
- - increased risk depression
what sleep disorder is this?
can’t help themselves from falling asleep. Various fits of sleepiness, going into REM sleep. Can occur any time.
what sleep disorder?
Stop breathing while sleeping – body realizes you’re not getting enough oxygen, wake up just long enough to gasp for air and fall back asleep without realizing. Not enough stage 3 (delta wave/ slow wave) sleep
Sleepwalking/sleep talking – mostly genetic, occur during stage _____ and are harmless. Occur more often in _____.
________ – used to induce sleep or reduce anxiety. Depress your CNS.
Side effects are reduced memory, judgement and concentration, with alcohol can lead to death (most drugs w/ alcohol are bad)
_________ are the most commonly prescribed suppressant. Sleep aids or anti-anxiety
Enhance your brain’s response to GABA. They open up GABA-activated chloride channels in your neurons, and make neurons more negatively charged.
3 types: short, intermediate, and long-acting. Short and intermediate are usually for sleep, while long acting are for anxiety.
_______ (inhibits adenosine receptors) can disrupt your sleep.
When you first experience pleasure, brain releases neurotransmitter called dopamine. Produced in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), in the midbrain.
VTA sends dopamine to the ______, ________ (controls motor functions), _______ (focus attention and planning), and ________ (memory formation).
VTA releases dopamine and receptors uptake dopamine – amygdala says this was enjoyable, hippocampus remembers and says let’s do it again, and nucleus accumbens says let’s take another bite. Prefrontal cortex focuses attention to it.
________ – ability to concentrate on one voice amongst a crowd. Or when someone calls your name.
Cocktail party effect
_______ results from a lack of attention that is not associated with vision defects or deficits, as an individual fails to perceive an unexpected stimulus in plain sight.
________ – fail to notice changes in environment.
Theories of Selective Attention
How do we filter out the unimportant information?
Shadowing task – left ear hear one thing, right ear another thing. Told to repeat everything said in one ear and ignore the other. We can learn about how selective attention works by seeing what they filter out in other ear. 3 theories
1) Broadbent’s Early Selection Theory
All info in environment goes into sensory register, then gets transferred to selective filter right away which filters out stuff in unattended ear and what you don’t need to understand it (accents etc.), and finally perceptual processes identifies friend’s voice and assigns meaning to words. Then you can engage in other cognitive processes.
Some problems – if you completely filter out unattended info, shouldn’t identify your own name in unidentified ear. Cocktail party effect.
2) Deutch & Deutch’s Late Selection Theory
Places broadband selective filter after perceptual processes. Selective filter decides what you pass on to conscious awareness.
But given limited resources and attention, seems wasteful to spend all that time assigning meaning to things first.
3) Treisman’s Attenuation Theory
Instead of complete selective filter, have an attenuator – weakens but doesn’t eliminate input from unattended ear. Then some gets to perceptual processes, so still assign meaning to stuff in unattended ear, just not high priority. Then switch if something important.
- Theories of Selective Attention
- How do we filter out the unimportant information?
- Shadowing task – left ear hear one thing, right ear another thing. Told to repeat everything said in one ear and ignore the other. We can learn about how selective attention works by seeing what they filter out in other ear. 3 theories
- 1) Broadbent’s Early Selection Theory
- All info in environment goes into sensory register, then gets transferred to selective filter right away which filters out stuff in unattended ear and what you don’t need to understand it (accents etc.), and finally perceptual processes identifies friend’s voice and assigns meaning to words. Then you can engage in other cognitive processes.
- Some problems – if you completely filter out unattended info, shouldn’t identify your own name in unidentified ear. Cocktail party effect.
- 2) Deutch & Deutch’s Late Selection Theory
- Places broadband selective filter after perceptual processes. Selective filter decides what you pass on to conscious awareness.
- But given limited resources and attention, seems wasteful to spend all that time assigning meaning to things first.
- 3) Treisman’s Attenuation Theory
- Instead of complete selective filter, have an attenuator – weakens but doesn’t eliminate input from unattended ear. Then some gets to perceptual processes, so still assign meaning to stuff in unattended ear, just not high priority. Then switch if something important.
Task similarity – ex. Listening to radio while writing a paper. Better to listen to classical music, because harder to multitask with similar tasks.
Task difficulty – harder tasks require more focus.
Practice – activities well practiced become automatic, or things that occur without need for attention. Whether task is automatic or controlled (harder).
- Task similarity – ex. Listening to radio while writing a paper. Better to listen to classical music, because harder to multitask with similar tasks.
- Task difficulty – harder tasks require more focus.
- Practice – activities well practiced become automatic, or things that occur without need for attention. Whether task is automatic or controlled (harder).
_______ model of attention. Selective attention – takes info from 5 senses, but don’t pay attention to everything.
Aware of things on an unconscious level – ex. Priming, where exposure to one stimulus affects response to another stimulus, even if we haven’t been paying attention to it.
We’re primed to respond to our name. Why it’s a strong prime for pulling our attention.
_____ memory (what you see/ lasts half a second)
_____ memory (what you hear/ lasts 3-4 seconds)
_______ is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst.
Serial position effect
an average human can hold in working memory is 7 ± 2, frequently referred to as ______ Law.
The _______ predicts that an item that 'stands out like a sore thumb' (called distinctive encoding) is more likely to be remembered than other items. It is a bias in favor of remembering the unusual.
Von Restorff effect
_________ hypothesis says it’s easier to remember words associated with images than either one alone.
______ memory - facts
______ memory - events
Implicit memory - _____ memory.
- semantic - facts
- episodic - events
Procedural memory (implicit)
A system that associates numbers with items that rhyme with or resemble the numbers.
For example, to remember the seven deadly sins—lust, pride, greed, anger, sloth, envy, and gluttony—the number one could be associated with a bun, two with a shoe, three with a tree, four with a door, five with a hive, six with sticks, and seven with heaven. Then lust would be remembered by imagining a man drooling over a cinnamon bun, pride would be remembered by picturing a man polishing his expensive shoes, greed would be remembered by envisioning the word hanging from a tree in place of fruit, and so on.
________ – think about new info and how it relates to you personally.
____ whether you're drunk / drugged / or sober
A _______ is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid snapshot of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard.
_______ (new learning impairs old info, ex. Writing new address)
_______ (something you learned in past impairs learning in future, ex. New password).
Does this memory decline, improve, or stable over age?
implicit procedural memory and recognition (____)
semantic memory - facts
recall, forming new episodic memory, and prospective memory (remember future)
implicit procedural memory and recognition (stable)
semantic memory facts - improves with age (also crystallized intelligence which is ability to use knowledge and experience and emotional reasoning)
recall, forming new episodic memory, and prospective memory (remember future) ----------> (decline with age)
_________ – caused by lack of vitamin B1 or thiamine. Caused by malnutrition, eating disorders, and especially alcoholism.
The precursor to this is _________
Thiamine converts carbohydrates into glucose cells need for energy. Imp for neurons.
Main symptom is severe memory loss, accompanied by confabulation (patients make up stories to fill in memories).
________ is inability to recall info previously encoded, ______ is inability to encode new memories.
which piaget stage?
- 0-2 years old
- object permanence develops
- use Accommodation is a term developed by psychologist Jean Piaget to describe what occurs when new information or experiences cause you to modify your existing schemas. Rather than make the new information fit into an existing schema, you change the schema in order to accommodate the new information.
which piaget stage?
2-7 years (approx.) – When children are going to develop/engage in pretend play. Very egocentric – no empathy.
which piaget stage?
7-11 years – Learn idea of conservation. Develop empathy
Concrete operational stage.
which piaget stage?
12+ years old – reason abstract consequences, and reason consequences. Where sophisticated moral reasoning begins to take place.
Formal operational stage
Incorrectly reject a true null / false positive
Fail to reject false null / false negative
type 1 error - Incorrectly reject a true null / false positive
type 2 error- Fail to reject false null / false negative
________ is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision.
________ cue based on prototype
________, which means co-occurrence of two instances is more likely than a single one (ex. Feminist bank teller vs. bank teller – actually more likely she’s just a bank teller, but people tend to think the probability of 2 events occurring together is higher than the probability of one alone).
Only seek out things that back your view. Only read stories about how wonderful candidate was.
_________ – ignore/rationalize disconfirming facts, ex. During elections ignore facts about someone you like.
_________ is a method for searching associative networks, neural networks, or semantic networks. The search process is initiated by labeling a set of source nodes and then iteratively propagating that activation out to other nodes linked to the source nodes.
________ is ability to reason quickly and abstractly. _______ refers to accumulated knowledge and verbal skills.
________ tends to decrease as we move into older adulthood, while ______ increases or stays same.
_______ – single g factor responsible for intelligence that underlies performance on all cognitive tasks
Gardner’s idea of 8 intelligences – differentiates intelligence into different modalities
_______ – human ability is hereditary
_______ – how a child at a specific age performs intellectually compared to average intellectual performance for that physical age in years.
Spearman’s idea of general intelligence
Gardner’s idea of 8 intelligences – differentiates intelligence into different modalities
Galton’s idea of hereditary genius
Binet’s idea of mental age
_______ - thought determines language completely
_______ - language determines thought completely
______ - language influences thought but not completely
_______ (middle) – language and thought are both independent, but converge through development. Eventually learn to use them at same time.
Linguistic Determinism STRONG Sapir-Whorfian hypothesis
Linguistic Determinism WEAK
Vygotsky- Interactionist approach – believe biological and social factors have to interact in order for children to learn language. Childrens’ desire to communicate with adults makes them learn language.
Nativist (innatist) perspective – children are born with ability to learn language. Associated with (what theorist?) .
The _________ asserts that cognition and perception are determined by language one speaks.
linguistic relativity hypothesis
wernicke and broca connected by _____ and when both damaged thats called _____.
when the connection between broca and wernicke is damaged thats called _______.
conduction aphasia – ability to conduct between listening and speaking is disrupted.
________ (inability to write), _______ (inability to name things).
Agraphia (inability to write), anomia (inability to name things).
If you sever the corpus callosum, also disrupts communication. Creates a split-brain patient. This surgery creates side effects with language – right side of brain can’t communicate with language side.
Left side needed for language, right side needed for action/perception/attention.
If you see object on left, won’t be able to name it. Can pick it up with left hand (since right side controls left), but has to be in right visual field before brain can name it.
showing colors on left side of visual field, information is sent to right hemisphere, which is responsible for perception/attention, but can't speak it, because left brain is needed for language.
- If you sever the corpus callosum, also disrupts communication. Creates a split-brain patient. This surgery creates side effects with language – right side of brain can’t communicate with language side.
- Left side needed for language, right side needed for action/perception/attention.
- If you see object on left, won’t be able to name it. Can pick it up with left hand (since right side controls left), but has to be in right visual field before brain can name it.
- showing colors on left side of visual field, information is sent to right hemisphere, which is responsible for perception/attention, but can't speak it, because left brain is needed for language.
Limbic system mneumonic
hippo wearing a HAT
hippocampus , hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus
Limbic system parts:
_______ – sensory relay station, everything you hear/taste/etc. end up in thalamus, which directs them to appropriate areas in cortex. Emotions contingent on senses. Smell is only one that bypasses the thalamus – goes to areas closer to amygdala.
______ – aka aggression center. If you stimulate amygdala, produces anger/violence and fear/anxiety. If you destroy it, get mellowing effect. Kluver-Bucy syndrome – bilateral destruction of amygdala, can result in hyperorality (put things in mouth a lot), hypersexuality, and disinhibited behavior.
_______ – key role in forming new memories. Convert short to long-term memory. If destroyed, still have old memories intact, just can’t make new ones.
_______ – for limbic system, it regulates the ANS (fight or flight vs. rest and digest). Controls endocrine system.
Hypothalamus - below thalamus
_______ Theory – experience of emotion depends on how the situation is appraised (labelled). Ex. Event -> labelling situation (cognitive) -> emotion + physiological response. How we label event is based on cultural/individual differences.
People perform best when they are moderately aroused – the _______, a bell shaped curve.
simple task / memorized task - perform well with high arousal
difficult task/ trying to learn task - perform poor with high arousal
_______ stressors – pollution. Perceivable, but hard to control. Noise, crowding. Can impact us without us being aware of them.
GAS general adaptation syndrome phase physiology:
sympathetic - norepinephrine adrenal medulla _______
adrenal cortex - cortisol
alarm- sympathetic - norepinephrine - adrenal medulla
resistance - cortisol / adrenal cortex
White or grey matter contains myelinated axons?
for brain ___ matter outside and for spinal cord ___ matter outside
white matter - myelinated
- grey - brain outside
- white - spinal outside
______ – motor, prefrontal, Broca’s area
______ – somatosensory cortex, spatial manipulation
______ – vision, “striate cortex”
______ – sound, Wernicke’s area
reticular formation 3 things
ways to study brain:
2 studies for structure:
2 studies for function: seizures , sleep stage, cognitive tasks
Both structure and function / activity:
structure: MRI , CT Scan
Function: MEG aka squids and EEG
- Brain function
- EEG – external, can’t tell us about activity of individual/groups of neurons. Can only look at sum total. Can tell us about seizures, sleep stage, cognitive tasks.
- MEG (aka SQUIDS) – better resolution than EEG, but more rare because requires a large machine and special room to shield it.
Both structure and function / activity:
- fMRI – same image from MRI but can look at which structures are active
- PET scans – can’t give us detail of structure, but can combine them with CAT scans and MRIs. Inject glucose into cells and see what areas of brain are more active at given point in time.
_______ focuses on the observation of animal behaviours, call these overt behaviours (not necessarily obvious, just means observable).
________ (defense mechanism where unwanted impulses are transformed into something less harmful).
________ (defense mechanism where someone says or does exact opposite of what they actually want/feel),
_________, a former student of Eysenck, developed the five-factor model of personality traits, the most widely used model of personality. The traits are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
Jeffrey Alan Gray
In the personality trait theory of Gordon Allport, a ______ trait is the trait that dominates and shapes a person's behavior. These are the ruling passions/obsessions, such as a need for money, fame etc.
In the theory of Gordon Allport, a _____ trait is a general characteristic found in some degree in every person. These are the basic building blocks that shape most of our behavior. An example would be honesty.
In the theory of Gordon Allport, a ______ trait is a characteristic seen only in certain circumstances (such as particular likes or dislikes that a very close friend may know). They must be included to provide a complete picture of human complexity.
_______ linked personality to brain systems in reward/motivation/punishment, such as low dopamine correlating with higher impulsivity.
Claude Robert Cloninger
_________ – the degree to which a person assumes leadership roles in social situations. Common in twins reared separately.
_______ – tendency to follow authority also shown to be common in twins.
Social potency trait
________ – Proposed we all had 16 essential personality traits that represent basic dimensions of personality. Turned this into the 16 personality factor questionnaire, or 16 PF.
The desire to develop intimate relationships with others: outgoing versus reserved
How calmly people respond to what life brings or what happens in life: calm versus stressed
How free and spontaneous a person expresses themselves: spontaneous versus restrained
The extent to which a person feels at ease in social situations: uninhibited versus shy
The extent to which someone is cautious with regard to the intentions and motivations of others: suspicious versus trusting
The extent to which someone wishes to keep personal information to themselves: discreet versus openness
Openness to change
The extent to which a person enjoys new situations and experiences: Flexible versus connected to the familiar
The need someone feels to trust in structure rather than leaving things to chance: controlled versus undisciplined
The extent to which a person is able to identify and solve numerical and verbal problems and connections: abstract versus concrete
The tendency to have influence and control over others: powerful versus submissive
The extent to which a person values rules: conforming versus non-conforming
The extent to which emotions and feelings of others affect a person: tender versus tough
The amount of attention that someone pays to abstract rather than concrete observations: imaginative versus practical
A person’s tendency to self-criticism: self-critical versus self-assured
The extent to which a person trusts in his own judgements and capacities and opts to work solo: self-reliant versus dependant
The extent to which a person may be frustrated by different situations: impatient versus relaxed
_______ Bobo Doll Experiment.
Abnormal pathways in depression. One starts in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem responsible for _______ Also the locus coeruleus, which sends long axons to cerebrum and releases ________. Also the VTA sends long axons to different areas of cerebrum, supplies ________.
5 monoamines are __