• freezingBlueID 80033
    • date ""
    • author "medic11"
    • tags "PHARM CARDS "
    • folders ""
    • description "Pharm Cards for Class final 4/15/11"
    • fileName "PHARM FINAL CARDS"
    • Drug
    • Chemical used to diagnose, treat or prevent disease
  1. Pharmacology
    Study of drugs & their interaction w/ the body
  2. Classification
    Broad group to which a drug belongs
  3. Indication
    Conditions that make the admission of a drug appropriate
  4. Pharmacodynamics
    How a drug interacts with the body to cause its effect
  5. Side effect
    The drugs untoward or undesired effects
  6. Contraindication
    Conditions that make it inappropriate to give the drug
  7. Teratogenic Drug
    Drugs that may deform or kill a fetus
  8. Pharmacokinetics
    How a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized or excreted
  9. Affinity
    Force of attraction between drug & receptor
  10. Efficacy
    Drugs ability to cause the expected response
  11. Agonist
    Drug which binds to receptor site causing a desired effect
  12. Antagonist
    Drug which binds w/ a receptor site blocking it but not causing the desired effect
  13. Allergic Reaction
    Aka hypersensativity, the effect occurs as a drug is antigenic & activates immune sys
  14. What is the difference between anaphylaxis & an allergic reaction?
    An allergic reaction isnt necessarily life threatening where as anaphylaxis is
  15. Tolerance
    Decreased response to the same amt of drug after repeated administrations
  16. Cross tolerance
    Tolerance for a drug that develops after administration of a different drug. ie opiod b/c tolerance for 1 = tolerance for all
  17. Tachyphylaxis
    Rapidly occurring tolerance to a drug. May occur aft a single dose
  18. Cumulative Effect
    ^ effectiveness when a drug is given in several doses
  19. Drug Dependance
    Pt becomes accustomed to the drugs presence in his body & will suffer physical or psychological withdrawal symptoms upon its absence
  20. Drug Interaction
    The effects of 1 drug alters the response to another drug
  21. Drug Antagonism
    The effects of 1 drug block the response to another drug
  22. Summation (aka ____ ____)
    • Additive effect
    • 2 drugs w/ same effect given together. 1+1=2
  23. Synergism
    2 drugs given together having the same effect & producing a response > the sum of their individual responses. 1+1=3
  24. Potentiation
    • 1 drug enhances the effect of another
    • ie Promethazine enhances morphine
  25. Interference
    Direct biochemical interaction between 2 drugs; 1 drug effects the pharm of another
  26. Analgesic
    Absence of the sensation of pain
  27. Anesthetic
    Induces loss of sensation to touch or pain
  28. Sedation
    State of decreased anxiety & inhibition
  29. Hypnosis
    Instigation of sleep
  30. Parasympathomimetic
    Causes effects like the parasympathetic NS (cholinergics)
  31. Parasympatholytic
    Blocks the parasympathetic nervous sys
  32. Sympathomimetic
    Causes effects like those of the sympathetic NS
  33. Sympatholytic
    Blocks the action of the sympathetic sys
  34. Antidysrhythmic
    Drug used to treat or prevent abnormal cardiac rhythms
  35. What is a schedule I drug?
    • High abuse potential
    • No med indication
  36. Describe a schedule II drug.
    • High abuse potential
    • May lead to dependance
  37. Describe a schedule III drug.
    • Less abuse
    • Moderate dependance
  38. Describe a schedule IV drug.
    • Low abuse
    • Less dependance
  39. Describe a schedule V drug.
    • Low abuse
    • Limited dependance
  40. What are class 1 recs as per the AHA?
    Conditions for which there is evidence &/or general agreement that a given procedure or treatment is useful & effective
  41. What are class 2 AHA recs mean?
    Conditions for which there is conflicting evidence &/or a divergence of opinion about the usefulness/efficacy of a procedure or treatment
  42. What are class 2a rec as per the AHA?
    Weight of evidence/opinion is in favor of usefulness/efficacy
  43. What are class 2b recs as per the AHA?
    Usefulness/efficacy is less well established by evidence/opinion
  44. What are class 3 recs as per the AHA?
    Conditions for which there is evidence &/or general agreement the the procedure/treatment is nor useful/effective & in some cases may harmful
  45. With regards to Levels of Evidence, describe level A.
    Data derived fr randomized clinical trials
  46. W/regards to Levels of Evidence, describe level B.
    Data derived fr a single randomized trial or non-randomized studies
  47. W/regards to Levels of evidence, describe level C.
    Consensus of opinion of experts
  48. What are the 6 rights of med administration?
    • Med
    • Dose
    • Time
    • Route
    • Patient
    • Administration
  49. Some drugs act my changing physical props of a part of the body. Give an example.
    Mannitol ^ urine output by ^ bloods osmolarity or osmotic pull
  50. Some drugs chemically combine w/ other substances. Give example.
    Isopropyl alcohol, used to disinfect skin b/f needle insertion, denatures proteins on the surface of bacteria cells destroying the bacteria
  51. What is an example of a class or drugs that alter a metabolic pathway?
    Cancer Drugs
  52. Tachyphalaxis is described as a ______.
    Rapidly decreasing effectiveness of a drug w/repeated use
  53. Digixon is prescribed for CHF primarily too what?
    Improve myocardial contractility & cardiac output
  54. Stimulation of histamine (H1) receptors often results in what?
    Vasodilation & increased vascular permeability
  55. An "orphan drug" is defined as a drug used to . . . .
    Treat a specific rare disease
  56. SLUDGE helps to ID the effects of _____ drugs on the autonomic nervous sys.
  57. When a drug causes a change in the cell membrane, preventing addl stimulation of the cell no matter how much stimulation is offered that drug is called a competitive/noncompetitive agonist/antagonist?
    Noncompetitive Antagonist
  58. Meds used to treat extrapyramidal side effects fr antipsychotics & to treat Parkinsons Disease achieve therapeutic effects by increasing/decreasing the amt of _____ at receptor sites in basal ganglia.
    Increasing the amt of dopamine
  59. Nitroprusside is used for _____ emergencies b/c it is a potent ____.
    • Hypertensive
    • Vasodilator
  60. Propranolol (aka ____) causes a ____ ____ effect.
    • Inderal
    • Negative Chronotropic
  61. A larger than expected dose of adenosine may be necessary in pts regularly taking ____ _____.
    Certain Bronchodilators
  62. The principal action by which digoxen achieves its therapeutic effect in heart failure is by what?
    Creating an environment where by Ca ions remain intracellular for a prolonged period
  63. Benzos are safer than barbituates in seizure pts b/c why?
    The effects of benzos is limited by the amt of endogenous GABA in the CNS
  64. According to Frank-Starlings Law, the administration of NTG will result in ____ preload, ____ stroke vol and ____ myocardial O2 demand.
    Decreased, Decreased, Decreased
  65. Reversable cholinesterase inhibitors enable/block parasympathetic/sympathetic stimulation for a finite period?
    Enables Parasympathetic
  66. If a drug blocks nicotinic receptors @ the neuromuscular junction, what symptomatic effect might this have on the patient?
    Inability to move voluntary and involuntary muscles
  67. At the cellular level, treatment of seizures is generally accomplished by ____ the influx of ____ ions into the neural cells.
    Inhibiting, Na and CA
  68. Administration of a nonselective beta antagonist will most likely result in ____ and ____ ____.
    Bronchoconstriction and inhibited glycogenolysis
  69. A drug that blocks muscarinic receptors in the peripheral nervous system would be classified as a _____.
  70. Th chief physiologic effect of nerve gases such as VX and sarin are too . . . .
    Irreversibly block the enzyme chlolinesterase
  71. Which classification of drug affecting the autonomic nervous system would be best suited to treat a pt w/spinal shock?
    Alpha agonist
  72. Beta adrenergic antagonists reduce hypertension by what 3 ways?
    • Neg inotropic effect
    • Suppressing renin release fr the kidneys
    • Diminishing reflex tach as a compensatory response
  73. Teratogenesis refers to the . . . . .
    Effects of a drug on a developing fetus
  74. An important difference between analgesics and anesthetics is what?
    Anesthetics block all sensations
  75. What is the term used to describe the effects a drug has on its target organ?
  76. An important physiologic distinction between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system is what?
    Sympathetic ganglia are close to the spinal cord
  77. The absorption of ASA fr the stomach is ____ b/c the acidity of gastric contents ____ ionization of the drug.
    Rapid, Impedes
  78. What disease is characterized by hypersecreation of adrenocorticotropic hormone leading to hyperglycemia, obesity, hypertension and electrolyte imbalances?
    Cushings Disease
  79. TCAs achieve their therapeutic effect by doing what?
    Prolonging the duration of Norepi & serotonin @ receptor sites
  80. In a pt experiencing an MI, a med that reduces afterload is beneficial b/c it
    Reduces the workload of the heart, reducing myocardial O2 consumption
  81. The FDAs pregnancy safety designation of Category A for a drug means:
    Adequate studies in pregnant women have not demonstrated a risk to the fetus in the 1st trimester or later trimesters
  82. _____ is the relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically comparable drugs.
  83. In the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which element is most responsible for widespread vasoconstriction?
    Angiotensin II
  84. The pharmacological effects of administering insulin to a hyperglycemic pt is an example of increased:
    Carrier -mediated Diffusion
  85. NTG achieves its therapeutic effects by:
    Blocking the entry of Ca into the cells of smooth muscle
  86. A prolonged deficiency in Vitamin C may result in ____.
  87. Hypoparathyroidism leads to decreased ____ ____.
    Ca Levels
  88. Name 3 common side effects of loop diuretics.
    • Reflex Tach
    • Hypokalemia
    • Orthostatic Hypotension
  89. The FDAs classification of a drugs treatment or therapeutic potential as "A" means the drug offers what?
    Important therapeutic gains
  90. In the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, dopamine is not administered directly b/c it cannot:
    Cross the blood brain barrier
  91. A significant issue with digitalis preparations is that they:
    Have a very narrow therapeutic index
  92. A lesion in the posterior pituitary gland resulting in hypersecreation of ADH could cause:
  93. A suppository is defined as what?
    A drug w/a wax like base that melts @ body temp, allowing absorption into body tissue.
  94. A large concern during the administration of an Alpha agonist is infiltration b/c it may cause:
    Tissue necrosis
  95. What are the 5 intrinsic benzo effects?
    • Anxiolytic
    • Amnesic
    • Sedative/Hypnotic
    • Anticonvulsant
    • Muscle Relaxant
  96. What is assay?
    Test that determines the amt & purity of a given chemical in a preparation in a laboratory
  97. Define Bioequivalence.
    Relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs
  98. Define Bioassay.
    Test to ascertain a drugs availability in a biological model
  99. Medication packages containing a single dose for a single pt. is called?
    Dose Packaging
  100. What is a med that may kill of deform a fetus called?
    Teratogenic Drug
  101. Describe free drug availability.
    The proportion of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects
  102. Define pharmacokinetics.
    How a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized (biotransformed) & excreted; how drugs are transported into & out of the body
  103. What are the 4 pharmacokinetic processes?
    • Absorption
    • Distribution
    • Biotransformation
    • Elimination
  104. Bioavailability is the amt of a drug _____?
    That is still active after it reaches its target tissue
  105. What is the special name given to the metabolism of drugs?
  106. What is a prodrug?
    A med that isnt active when administered, but whos biotransformation converts it into active metabolites
  107. What is the first pass effect?
    The livers partial or complete inactivation of a drug b/f it reaches the systemic circulation
  108. Enteral delivery of a med means the med is delivered . . . .
    Through the intestinal tract
  109. Parentarel delivery of a med is any route that . . . .
    Outside the gastrointestinal tract, typically using needles to inject directly into the circulatory sys or tissue
  110. Give 5 examples of enteral med routes.
    • PO
    • Orogastric/Nasogastric Tube (OG/NG)
    • SL
    • Buccal
    • PR
  111. Parenteral Routes include (12):
    • IV
    • ET
    • IO
    • Umbilical
    • IM
    • SC
    • Inhalation/Neb
    • Topical
    • Transdermal
    • Nasal
    • Instillation
    • Intradermal
  112. An agonist-antogonist (partial agonist) is a drug that binds to a receptor & . . .
    stimulates some of its effects but blocks others
  113. Competitive antagonism is when 1 drug . . . .
    binds to a receptor & causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug fr triggering the same receptor
  114. What is non-competative antagonism?
    The binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist fr fitting & binding
  115. Irreversible antagonism is a . . . .
    Competitive antagonist permanently binds w/a receptor site
  116. What are side effects?
    Unintended response to a drug
  117. List some side effects (13).
    • Allergic reaction
    • Idiosyncrasy
    • Tolerance
    • Cross-tolerance
    • Tachyphylaxis
    • Cumulative Effect
    • Drug dependance
    • Drug interaction
    • Drug antagonism
    • Summation
    • Synergism
    • Potentiation
    • Interference
  118. Interference is. . . .
    The direct biochemical interaction between 2 drugs; 1 drug affects the pharm of another
  119. What is a drug response relationship?
    Correlation of different amts of a drug to clinical response
  120. What is the plasma level profile?
    Describes lengths of onset, duration & termination of action as well as the drugs min effective concentration & toxic levels
  121. What is the onset of action?
    Time from administration until a med reaches its minimum effective concentration
  122. The autonomic nervous sys ctrls what & is further divided into ____ & ____?
    • Involuntary or automatic functions
    • Sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous sys
  123. What are the effects of opiod agonists?
    • Analgesia
    • Euphoria
    • Sedation
    • Miosis
  124. What effect does morphine have on the heart?
    Decreases preload & afterload
  125. What are the effects of a prototype benzo?
    • Antianxiety
    • Hypnotic
    • Anesthetic
    • Anticonvulsant
    • Sedative
  126. What is EPS (aka ___) & what causes it?
    • Extrapyramidal Symptoms
    • Dystonic Reaction
    • Caused by brain damage & antipsychotic drugs
  127. How to TCA's work?
    By blocking the reuptake or nor-epi & serotonin thus extending the duration of their action
  128. How do SSRIs work?
    By selectively blocking the reuptake of serotonin but they do not affect dopamine or nor-epi
  129. Whats used to treat ODs of TCAs?
    Sodium Bicarbonate
  130. What is parkinsons disease?
    A nervous disorder caused by the destruction of dopamine releasing neurons in the substantia nigra, part of the basal ganglia, which is a specialized area of the brain that crtl fine motor movement
  131. What is dyskinesia?
    Disfunctional movements such as involuntary tremors, unsteady gait & postural instability
  132. What is the drug of choice for treating Parkinsons & why?
    Levodopa b/c it can readily cross the blood brain barrier where it is absorbed by dopamine releasing neuron terminals
  133. Describe the blood brain barrier.
    Tight junctions of the endothelial cells in the CNS vasculature thru which only non protein bound highly lipid soluble drugs can pass
  134. Define the Placental Barrier.
    Biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules
  135. What is a prodrug?
    A med that isnt active when administered, but whos biotransformation converts it into active metabolites
  136. What is the first pass effect?
    The livers partial or complete inactivation of a drug b/f it reaches the systemic circulation
  137. What is oxidation?
    The loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an O2 atom ^ pos charge on the molecule
  138. What are the 4 types of drug actions?
    • Binding to a receptor site
    • Changing physical props of cells
    • Chemically combining w/other chemicals
    • Altering normal metabolic pathway
  139. A receptor is a. . .
    Specialized protein that combines w/ a drug resulting in a biochemical effect
  140. What are the three universal special considerations when dealing w/Meds?
    • Pregnant
    • Pediatric
    • Geriatric
  141. Describe the chemical name of a drug:
    States chemical composition & molecular structure
  142. The generic name for a drug is:
    A drug name suggested by the manufacturer
  143. The official name for a drug:
    Name given to a drug when the FDA lists the drug in the USP
  144. The brand name for a drug is:
    The proper name for a drug given by the manufacturer
Card Set