Cardiology cards

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    • What are the 2 parts of the pericardium & their locations?
    • Visceral (epicardium) – inner
    • Parietal – outer, fibrous layer
  1. The 2 main heart sounds are what?
    • S1 – “lubb” caused by the closing of the AV valves
    • S2 – “dupp” Caused by the closing of the SL valves
  2. The R coronary artery branches into what 2 parts?
    • Posterior Descending Artery
    • Marginal Artery
  3. The left coronary artery branches into what 2 parts?
    • Left anterior descending
    • Left circumflex Artery
  4. Give 5 facts about the L anterior descending.
    • Originates on left side of aorta
    • “widow maker” associated w/sudden death
    • Part of R ventricle
    • Intraventricular septal artery (septum)
  5. Give 2 facts about the L circumflex artery
    • Lateral wall of L ventricle
    • Posterior wall of L ventricle
  6. Define cardiac cycle
    Period of time fr end of 1 contraction to the end of the next
  7. Define diastole.
    Period of time when myocardium is relaxed & cardiac filling & coronary perfusioni occur
  8. Define systole.
    Period of cardiac cycle when myocardium is contracting
  9. What is “atrial kick?”
    When the atria contract filling ventricles to capacity. This kick accounts for 30% of output
  10. Define stroke volume & what is it equal too?
    • Amt of blood ejected fr 1 ventricle w/each heart beat usually 60-100ml
    • SV = HR x Cardiac output
  11. Define preload.
    Pressure in filled ventricle @ end of diastole
  12. Define Frank Starling Law & what drug effects it.
    • Greater the vol of blood in heart during diastole causing myocardial muscle stretch, the more forceful the contraction
    • Dopamine works directly on this principle
  13. What is afterload?
    Resistance against which ventricle must contract to eject blood
  14. If we increase peripheral vascular resistance we will ____ stroke vol.
  15. Decreasing peripheral vascular resistance will ____ stroke vol?
  16. Define venous return.
    Amt of blood flowing into R atrium each min fr systemic circulation
  17. What is cardiac output?
    Amt of blood pumped each minute by the heart
  18. How many ml in an avg stroke vol?
  19. Define systemic vascular resistance.
    Resistance to the flow of blood determined by vessel diameter & tone
  20. The sympathetic nervous sys influences both the atria & ventricles. T or F
  21. The parasympathetic nervous sys primarily influences what part of the heart?
  22. Where are alpha receptors in the heart?
    Located in peripheral blood vessels & responsible for vasoconstriction
  23. Where are Beta 1 receptors located?
    Primarily in the heart to increase HR & contractility
  24. Where are Beta 2 receptors located?
    Lungs & peripheral blood vessels to cause bronchodilation & peripheral vasodilation
  25. What is cardiac excitability?
    The ability of cardiac muscle cells to respond to an external stimulus (chemical, electrical, mechanical
  26. What is cardiac conductivity?
    The ability of cardiac cells to receive an elec stimulus & conduct that impulse to an adjacent cell
  27. What is cardiac autiomaticity?
    Ability of cardiac pacemaker cells lto spontaneously initiate an elec impulse
  28. What is cardiac contractility?
    Ability of cardiac cells to shorten causing muscle contraction in response to electrical stimulus
  29. Normal ejection fraction is greater than ____ %.
  30. The avg cardiac stroke vol is ____?
    70 ml
  31. The resistance against which the ventricle must pump blood is called what?
    Peripheral vascular resistance
  32. The formula for cardiac output is _______?
    Stroke vol (ml) x HR
  33. The formula for BP is _____?
    Cardiac output x systemic vascular resistance
  34. What type of receptors cause bronchodilation & peripheral vasodilation?
  35. Na's major role in the cardiac cell is ____?
  36. Resting membrane potential is measures @ around ____ mV.
    - 70
  37. The Na/K exchange pump exchanges ____ Na for every ____ K taken into the cell
    • 3 Na out
    • 2 K in
  38. What are ions?
    Atom or grp of atoms w/ an elec charge
  39. What is diffusion?
    Movement of ions fr high concentration to area of low concenttration
  40. What is a gradient?
    A force which drives diffusion
  41. When Na rushes into a cell rapidly & the inside of the cell is more pos tan the outside this is called ____?
  42. How many P waves must be noted in order for a rhythm to be considered to have a wandering pacemaker?
  43. When a wandering atrial pacemaker rhythm >100 bpm is considered to be what?
    Multifocal Atrial Tach
  44. The term that applies to any tachycardic rhythm originating above the ventricle is called ____?
  45. What are the 6 "H"s for reversible causes?
    • Hydrogen Ion
    • Hypovolemia
    • Hypoxia
    • Hypothermia
    • Hypo/hyper kalemia
    • Hypo/hyper glycemia
  46. What are the 6 T reversible causes?
    • Thromboembolism
    • Trauma
    • Toxins/tablets
    • Tension pneumo
    • Tamponade (AMI)
    • Cardiac tamponade
  47. Name the bipolar leads.
    I, II, III
  48. What is the proper placement of the V5 lead?
    5th intercostal anterior axillary
  49. What happens -- physically -- when depolarization occurs?
    Muscle contraction
  50. Ability of cardiac pacemaker cells to spontaneously initiate an electrical impulse is called?
  51. A "P" wave represents what actions of the heart?
    Atrial depolarization and contraction
  52. The QRS represents what 2 actions of the heart?
    Ventricular depolarization and contraction
  53. The "T" wave represents what action of the heart?
  54. What are the 2 valves that lie between the atria?
    Tricuspid and Mitral
  55. What level of the heart do the terminal ends of the purkinje Fibers lay?
    Spread out beneath the endocardium
  56. Ventricular conduction is composed of purkinje fibers that use fast moving ____ ions for conduction.
  57. What are the 2 phases of ventricular repolarization & how are they represented on EKG?
    • Plateau Phase & Rapid Phase
    • ST segment & T wave
  58. Ventricualr systole begins @ the _____ & persists until the end of the ____ wave.
    • QRS
    • T Wave
  59. Pt's w/long QT syndrome are in danger of developing _____?
    Rapid ventricular Rhythms
  60. The release of free Ca++ ions into the interior of the myocytes produce myocardial ____?
  61. Following depolarization, repolarization is due to the controlled outflow of ____ fr the myocytes.
    CA ions
  62. What neurotransmitter activates the heart's B1 adrenergic receptors?
  63. Junctional foci have an inherent rate of ____ to ____.
    40 to 60
  64. Ventricular foci have an inherent rate of ____ to ____.
  65. Lead V6 is placed where?
    5th intercostal mid axillary
  66. If an impulse is moving toward a lead it will have a ____ deflection.
  67. Phase II of the cardiac action potential is?
  68. Phase I of a cardiac action potential is?
    Early repolarization
  69. The left anterior descending artery supplies which wall of the heart?
    Anterior Wall
  70. What is the paper speed on the EKG?
    25 mm/sec
  71. The left circumflex artery supplies which 2 walls of the heart?
    Lateral Wall & Septum
  72. What is the period of time fr the end of 1 contraction to the end of the next is called?
    Cardiac cycle
  73. The PR interval measures what?
    Time for impulse to travel fr atria to ventricles
  74. Atrial kick accounts for what % of cardiac output?
  75. Lead V3 is placed where?
    Halfway between leads V2 & V4
  76. V4R lead placement is where?
    V4 lead lead moved to right side, 5th intercostal, mid clavicular
  77. What is the compensatory pause?
    Absence of an appropriate beat after a PVC as the ventricles repolarize
  78. Describe bigeminy.
    A rhythm of 1 NS beat followed by an ectopic one
  79. Which is worse for an ectopic beat to fall on? The absolute refractory period or the relative refractory period?
    Relative refractory period
  80. What lead looks at the high lateral wall?
  81. What lead looks at the base of the heart & can help diagnose a TCA OD?
  82. What is the criteria for a posterior hemiblock?
    • Left axis deviation
    • Sm "Q" in lead 3
    • Big "R" in lead 1
  83. A left bundle branch has a ____ deflection b/f the J point.
    Downward (negative)
  84. An extreme right axis and upright V1 equals ____.
    V Tach
  85. An RSR pattern b/f the J point is what?
  86. Two hemiblocks are also called what?
    Bifasicular Block
  87. Which left hemibock has the highest mortality rate?
    Posterior Hemiblock
  88. What rate determines rapid ventricular response in A Fib? A Flutter?
    • Afib = >100 bpm
    • A flutter = 200-250
  89. What is the deviation allowed in the R-R for a rhythm to still be regular?
    0.06 sec
  90. What is a wandering atrial pacemaker w/a rate over 100 called?
    Multi focal A Tach
  91. What is the preferred drug w/dosage for Torsades?
    Mag Sulfate @ 1-2 g IV drip over 10 minutes
  92. Your pt is in an idioventricular rhythm, pale, diaphoretic, & unconscious. Do what?
    PACE !
  93. What are five drugs for treating V Fib?
    • Lidocaine
    • Amiodarone
    • Procainamide
    • Vasopressin
    • Bretyllium
  94. How does pericarditis present on an ECG?
    • The ST segment is usually flat or concave
    • Entire T may be elevated off baseline
  95. What is the effect of digitalis on an ECG?
    Depressed ST segment looking like a scoop
  96. How does hyperkalemia present on and ECG?
    W/ tall peaked T waves
Card Set
Cardiology cards