Phyl 141 Exam 1

  1. Write diffusion equation.
    Write it.
  2. Is the cell membrane lipid or water soluble? What can pass through?
    • Lipid.
    • Cholesterol.
    • Testosterone.
    • Estrogen. (Steroids)
  3. Atomic number.
  4. Atomic Mass.
    Protons and neutrons.
  5. How do you get an isotope.
    Change the neutrons.
  6. What if you change the number of protons in an atom?
    You get a different element.
  7. What element is more abundant inside the cell?
  8. What's an ionic bond?
    One gives an electron, other takes.
  9. Non-polar covalent.
    Equally sharing a bond.
  10. Polar covalent.
    One pulls harder on the bond than the others.
  11. What are the ions that H+ can temporarily bind to?
    F, O, N.
  12. Anabolism. Synthesis or breakdown?
  13. Catabolism. Synthesis or breakdown?
  14. Can enzymes reverse a reaction? Yes or no.
  15. What's the solvent, what's the solute.
    Solute is being dissolved in the solvent.
  16. pH of human blood?
  17. H+ to pH ratio?
    H+ proportional to 1/pH.
  18. Alkelemia?
    Blood is basic.
  19. Acidemia?
    Blood is acidic.
  20. Mouth/throat. Acidic or basic?
  21. Stomach. Acidic or basic?
  22. GI tract. Acidic or basic?
  23. Where does a base dissolve?

    D) A and C.

    Like dissolves like.
  24. Where does an acid dissolve?

    B) Stomach.

    Like dissolves like.
  25. What are the three mono saccharides?
    • Glucose.
    • Fructose.
    • Galactose.
  26. How do you get Maltose?

    C) Glucose + Glucose.
  27. How do you get Sucrose?

    B) Glucose + Fructose.
  28. How do you get Lactose?

    B) Glucose + Galactose.
  29. What is stored sugar in the liver called?
  30. Form bond.

    A) Hydration.
    B) Hydrolysis.
    A) Hydration.
  31. Break Bond.

    A) Hydrolysis.
    B) Hydration.
    A) Hydrolysis.
  32. Describe Primary protein structure.
    The sequence of a chain of amino acids.
  33. Describe the secondary protein structure. What does it look like?
    Occurs when a sequence of amino acids are linked by hydrogen bonds. Looks pleated or spiral.
  34. Describe the tertiary protein structure. What does it look like?
    The folding over of a protein.
  35. Describe the quaternary protein structure. What does it look like?
    Two or more tertiary folded over into each other.
  36. What does the agonist do to the receptor?
    Turns it on. Activates it.
  37. What does antagonist do to a receptor?
    Turns receptor off. Blocks it from agonists. It can be "pushed off" by more agonists, however.
  38. What does the non-competitive antagonist do to the receptor?
    "Cuts the line" of the receptor making the whole thing useless.
  39. Denaturation is?
    Temporary or permanent change in the three-dimensional structure of a protein.
  40. Transcription.
    DNA to RNA.
  41. Translation.
    RNA to protein.
  42. Alcohol detox and breakdown?

    A) Smooth ER.
    B) Rough ER.
    A) Smooth ER.
  43. What's the cytosol?
    Liquid in the cells.
  44. Makes protein?

    A) Smooth ER.
    B) Rough ER.
    B) Rough ER.
  45. Centrioles do what for the cell?
    Complete cytokinesis.
  46. Transverse plane divides body into what?
    Top and Bottom.
  47. Frontal plane?
    Front and back halves.
  48. Sagittal plane?
    Left and right halves.
  49. Difference between integral proteins and peripheral proteins?
    Integral goes through while peripheral attaches to surface, acting like a marker.
  50. Colchicine treats?
  51. Four types of tissue?
    • Connective.
    • Muscular.
    • Epithelial.
    • Nervous.
  52. Squamas epithelial looks like?
  53. Cuboidal epithelial looks like?
    Cubes. Squares.
  54. Columnar epithelial looks like?
    Columns. Tall.
  55. Simple epithelial is?
    One layer. Good for diffusion.
  56. Sratified epithelial is for?
    Protection from friction and stress. More than one layer.
  57. Keratin is found where?
    Pretty much everywhere outside. Not inside like the anus, or the vaginal cavity. Protects from dehydration and the sun. Waterproof barrier.
  58. Difference between cilla and microvilli?
    Cillia helps with movement, microvilli just increases surface area.
  59. What's a desmosome?
    Attaches a cell to another cell.
  60. What's a Hemi-desmosome?
    Attaches cell to basil lamina.
  61. Gap junctions in cells?
    Hole that allow ions to pass through.
  62. Tight junctions in cells?
    Don't allow water to move.
  63. Basil lamina difference between clear layer and dense layer?
    • Clear layer made from secretions of epithelials.
    • Dense layer: layers of connective tissue.
  64. What lines body cavities?

    A) Mesothelium.
  65. What is NOT a loose connective tissue?

    C) Muscular.
  66. What does Benedryll do?
  67. Components of connective tissue?
    • Matrix - Cement mix
    • Fibers - Rebar
    • Cells - Modify
  68. Where is reticular tissue?
  69. What is Hyaline and what does it look like?
    Cartilidge. Bug Eggs.
  70. What does elastic cartilage look like?
    Spider web.
  71. What does Fibrous cartilage look like?
    Big eye.
  72. Basic func. unit of a bone?
  73. 3 Serious membranes surround?
    • Lungs
    • Heart
    • Abdomen
  74. What is a neuroglia?
    Supply nutrients to neurons.
  75. What a thrombocyte?
  76. What's a leukocyte?
  77. What are lymphocytes made out of?
    B, T and N cells.
  78. What do monocytes consist of?
  79. What are Eosinophils for?
    Allergy, parasites.
  80. What are Basophils for?
    MAST cells, histomine release.
  81. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is found where and what does it do?
    Lungs. Moves mucus.
  82. What does cuboidal or columnar tissue do?
    Secretions or absorption.
  83. What does squamas epithelium do?
    Absorption and diffusion.
  84. Where is mesothelium?
    Lines body cavities.
  85. Where is trasitional epithelium?
  86. What kind of tissue is found in the urethra?
    Stratified squamas.
  87. What tissue is found in the salivary gland?
    Stratified columnar epithelium.
  88. What does goblet cells for?
    Makes mucus.
  89. 4 cells of the epidermis?
    • Keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Langerhans
    • Merkal cells.
  90. Most deadly skin cancer?
  91. Bone deposition break or create bone?
  92. Bone resorption break or create bone?
  93. Greenstick fracture?
    Occurs in young, soft bone.
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Phyl 141 Exam 1