PA-44 Seminole MEL IFR

  1. Vmc ?
    56 KIAS
  2. Vso ?
    55 KIAS
  3. Vs ?
    57 KIAS
  4. Vr (Normal) ?
    75 KIAS
  5. Vr (Short & Soft) ?
    65 KIAS
  6. Vx/Vxse ?
    82 KIAS
  7. Vy/Vyse ?
    88 KIAS
  8. Cruise Climb ?
    105 KIAS
  9. Vfe ?
    111 KIAS
  10. Va (3800 lbs.) ?
    135 KIAS
  11. Va (2700 lbs.) ?
    112 KIAS
  12. Vno ?
    169 KIAS
  13. Vne ?
    202 KIAS
  14. Vlo/Vle ?
    140 KIAS
  15. Vlo (Retract) ?
    109 KIAS
  16. ?
    !!
  17. Vref (Short) ?
    75 KIAS
  18. Max. Storm Window Open ?
    129 KIAS
  19. Max. Ramp Weight ?
    3816 lbs.
  20. Max. Takeoff Weight ?
    3800 lbs.
  21. Max. Landing Weight ?
    3800 lbs.
  22. Max. Baggage Total Weight ?
    200 lbs.
  23. Total Fuel ?
    110 Gal.
  24. Usable Fuel ?
    108 Gal.
  25. Oil Capacity ?
    6 Qts.
  26. Oil Minimum ?
    6 Qts.
  27. Max. Demonstrated Crosswind ?
    17 KTS
  28. Main Tire Pressure ?
    55 PSI
  29. Nose Tire Pressure ?
    50 PSI
  30. Practice Area Cruise ?
    20" MP/2300 RPM
  31. Enroute Cruise ?
    25" MP/2400 RPM
  32. Precision Descent ?
    15" MP/ Maximum RPM
  33. Non-Precision Descent ?
    12" MP/ Maximum RPM
  34. ENGINE FIRE - STARTUP ?
    • A. Cranking
    • -----CONTINUE
    • *****If engine starts:*****
    • 1. Affected Engine Throttle
    • -----1700 RPM FOR 3 MIN
    • 2. Engines
    • -----SHUTDOWN
    • *****If engine does not start:*****
    • 1. Affected Engine Throttle
    • -----MAX
    • 2. Mixtures
    • -----ICO
    • 3. Affected Engine Starter Switch
    • -----START
    • 4. Fuel Selectors
    • -----OFF
    • 5. Auxiliary Fuel Pumps
    • -----OFF
    • 6. Magneto Switches
    • -----OFF
    • 7. Master Battery/Alternator Switches
    • -----OFF
    • 8. Fire Extinguisher
    • -----REMOVE
    • B. Evacuate Aircraft
  35. ENGINE FAILURE - TAKEOFF ROLL ?
    • 1. Throttles
    • -----IDLE
    • 2. Toe Brakes
    • -----AS REQUIRED
    • 3. Wing Flaps
    • -----UP
  36. ENGINE FAILURE - INFLIGHT ?
    • 1. Airspeed
    • -----88 KIAS
    • ***Obstacle clearance speed is 82 KIAS.***
    • 2. Mixtures
    • -----RICH
    • 3. Propellers
    • -----MAX
    • 4. Throttles
    • -----MAX
    • 5. Wing Flaps
    • -----UP
    • 6. Landing Gear Lever
    • -----UP
    • ***Confirm inoperative engine.***
    • 1. (Inoperative Engine) Propeller
    • -----FEATHER
  37. WING FIRE (F) ?
    • A. Lights/Pitot Heat
    • -----OFF
    • B. Sideslip
    • -----AS REQUIRED
    • ***If necessary:***
    • 1. Declare an emergency with ATC or on 121.5
    • 2. Activate ELT
    • 3. Squawk 7700
  38. ENGINE FIRE - INFLIGHT (F) ?
    • 1. (Affected Engine) Fuel Selector
    • -----OFF
    • 2. (Affected Engine) Throttle
    • -----IDLE
    • 3. (Affected Engine) Propeller
    • -----FEATHER
    • 4. (Affected Engine) Mixture
    • -----ICO
    • 5. (Affected Engine) Cowl Flap
    • -----OPEN
    • 6. Airspeed
    • -----100 KIAS MINIMUM
  39. SMOKE/CABIN FIRE (F) ?
    • 1. Master Battery/Alternator Switch
    • -----OFF
    • 2. Cabin Heat/Vents
    • -----OFF
    • 3. Fire Extinguisher
    • -----AS REQUIRED
  40. SPIN RECOVERY (F) ?
    • 1. Throttle
    • -----IDLE
    • 2. Ailerons
    • -----NEUTRAL
    • 3. Rudder
    • -----OPPOSITE
    • 4. Stabilator
    • -----FORWARD
  41. AIRFRAME ICE (F) ?
    • ***Climb, descend, or turn to exit.***
    • 1. Carburetor Heats
    • -----ON
    • 2. Cabin Heat
    • -----ON
    • 3. Defrosters
    • -----OPEN
    • 4. Pitot Static
    • -----ON
    • 5. Alternate Static
    • -----ON
  42. PROPELLER OVERSPEED ?
    • ***Confirm affected propeller.***
    • 1. (Affected Engine) Throttle
    • -----IDLE
    • 2. (Affected Engine) Oil Pressure
    • -----CHECK
    • 3. (Affected Engine) Propeller
    • -----MIN
    • ***Adjust throttle, propeller, and airspeed as required to maintain 2700 RPM or less.***
  43. EMERGENCY DESCENT ?
    • 1. Cowl Flaps
    • -----CLOSED
    • 2. Throttles
    • -----IDLE
    • 3. Propellers
    • -----MAX
    • 4. Mixtures
    • -----AS REQUIRED
    • 5. Landing Gear
    • -----DOWN
    • 6. Airspeed
    • -----140 KIAS
  44. Engines ?
    Two Lycoming O-360 four-cylinder, direct drive, horizontally opposed engines. each rated at 180 horsepower @ 2700 RPM at sea level. The engine is air cooled and equipped with oil coolers with low temperature bypass system and engine-mounted oil filter.
  45. Alternator ?
    Two belt-driven 14 volt, 60 amp alternators
  46. Alternator Control Units ? .
    Consists of voltage regulator and Overvoltage relay. The regulator is for load sharing while regulating bus voltage of 14-volts. The overvoltage relay takes the alternator offline if output exceeds 17 volts. If this occurs the ALTernator light illuminates
  47. Battery ?
    35 ampere-hour, 12-volt battery
  48. Propeller ?
    2 Hartzell constant speed, hydraulically actuated, full feathering propellers. Two counter rotating props with two blades each.
  49. Max CHT ?
    500
  50. max oil temp ?
    245
  51. min to max oil pressure ?
    15-115
  52. min to max fuel pressure ?
    .5-.8 (5-8 is green)
  53. max load factors ?
    2.0 flaps down - 3.8 flaps up
  54. Alt air, gyro, and oil warning lights on when... ?
    Prop is feathered
  55. Type tab on stabilator ?
    Anti servo that moves in same direction with greater travel
  56. Type tab on rudder ?
    Anit servo that enhances rudder control
  57. What RPM do locking pins engage?
    950
  58. Landing gear ?
    • Hydraulically actuated
    • * Electrically driven
    • * 1 pump, dual flow
    • * Gear held up by hydraulic pressure-1800PSI
    • * Gear held down by J Locks & c Locks
    • * Steerable nose wheel
    • * Connected to rudder pedals
    • * Oleo Struts
    • * air and oil in struts oil absorbs the impact first then ride on air
  59. Microswitches ?
    • 13 (9 connected to pump 4 connected to gear horn)
    • * 3 up limit
    • * 3 down limit
    • * 1 in the pump
    • * 1 in the middle
    • * 1 in the handle
    • * GH 2 squat switches
    • * Left main
    • * Prevents Raising gear while on the ground and sounds gear horn
    • * Right main
    • * turns on tach time
    • * Tach won't start until you are off the ground
    • * stops the stall horn from going off on the ground
    • * turns on the fan if you use the heater on ground
    • * GH 1 in throttle
    • * Below 14 inches for either throttle (gear mute switch applies)
    • * GH 1 in flaps
    • * pass 10 degrees
  60. How many fuel pumps?
    • 6
    • * 2 per engine for back-up elec & engine driven
    • * 2 for the heater (2nd stage pump)
  61. Will the fuel primer work if the electric fuel pump is off?
    No
  62. How does the fuel primer work? How many cylinders does it prime and why?
    • 1,2,4
    • so you don't flood all cylinders
  63. Heater fuel burn ?
    0.5 GPH off of left engine
  64. Why aft CG with Vmc?
    Shorter arm between CG and rudder
  65. P.A.S.T.
    • P-Factor (Yaw):
    • Accelerated Slipstream (Roll and Pitch):
    • Spiraling Slipstream (Yaw):
    • Torque (Roll):
  66. P-Factor (Yaw):
    The descending blade on the prop has more thrust. The right engine descending blade is further from the CG so will have more leverage (yaw) with a failure of the left engine.
  67. Accelerated Slipstream (Roll and Pitch):
    P-Factor causes more thrust to be produced on the right side of the propeller meaning that the lift will be higher on the right side (because further from CG) with a failure of the left engine. Will also be less negative lift on the tail because more airflow from the left engine that hits the tail.
  68. Spiraling Slipstream (Yaw):
    A spiraling slipstream from the left engine hits the vertical stabilizer from the left, helping to counteract the yaw produced by the loss of the right engine. The slipstream from the right engine does not hit the vert stabilizer meaning no help if the left engine fails.
  69. Torque (Roll):
    For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion.
  70. Vmc change with bank angle ?
    3 knots per degree of bank up to 5 degrees
  71. Vmc ?
    V-MC is the minimum airspeed at which directional control can be maintained with the critical engine inoperative. Aircraft manufacturers determine V-MC based on conditions set by the FAA:
  72. SMACFUM
    • 1. Standard Day Conditions at Sea Level (15 deg Celsius, 29.92 standard pressure). Standard conditions at sea level allows the engine to develop maximum power.
    • 2. Maximum Power on the Operating Engine.
    • 3. Aft CG
    • 4. Critical Engine Windmilling. Creates a lot of drag on the dead engine. Like a big disc.
    • 5. Flaps Up, Gear Up, Trim for Takeoff. When the gear is extended, the gear and gear doors have a keel effect, reducing the yawing tendency and decreasing the V-MC. Extended flaps have a stabilizing effect that may reduce V-MC.
    • 6. Up to 5 degrees of bank. Wings level, only the rudder helps with yaw. Banking into the operating engine creates a horizontal component of lift which helps offset yaw. V-MC increase with decreasing bank by a factor of 3 knots per degree of bank angle.
    • 7. Most Unfavorable Weight. (Lighter is worse). The heavier the aircraft the greater the horizontal component of lift which aids the rudder and decreases V-MC
  73. Define Single Engine Service Ceiling ?
    Single-engine service ceiling is the max density altitude at which the single engine best rate of climb airspeed (V-YSE) will produce a 50 fpm rate of climb with the critical engine inoperative
  74. Define single engine absolute ceiling ?
    Single engine absolute ceiling - max density altitude that an aircraft can attain or maintain with the critical engine inoperative. V-YSE and V-XSE are equal at this altitude. The aircraft drifts down to this altitude when an engine fails.
  75. Procedure for alternate static source ?
    Yes, located inside the cabin under the left side of the instrument panel.

    The storm window and cabin vents must be closed, and the heater and defroster must be turned on. This will reduce the pressure differential between the cockpit and the atmosphere, which will reduce error.
  76. VOR checks ?
    • 4 degrees for VOT, ground checkpoint and dual check.
    • 6 degrees for an airborne check
    • VOR equipment must be checked every 30 days
  77. Preflight performance analysis ?
    • Preflight performance analysis to look at:
    • 1. Takeoff Ground Roll, Short Field Effort, Graph
    • 2. Takeoff Distance over 50 ft runway, Graph
    • 3. Accelerate Stop Distance, Graph (this one has now been deleted)
    • 4. Climb performance, single engine, gear up, graph
    • 5. Cruise performance graph
    • 6. Speed/Power graph (a lot of people have trouble w this). Make sure to adjust the temperature for the standard drop with elevation.
    • 7. Accelerate go graph
  78. IFR Lost Comms ? AVEF/MEA
    Route: Assigned, Vectored, Expected, Filed

    Altitude: MEA, Expected, Assigned (Highest)
  79. Factors affecting climb ?
    Airspeed, Drag, Power, Weight
  80. Max speed for emergency gear extension ?
    100
  81. Suction limits for vaccum pumps ?
    4.8-5.2
  82. When does a light twin not need single engine performance?
    < 6,000 lbs or Vso < 61kts
  83. How WAAS works ?
    Ground stations monitor GPS signals, send info to geo stationary sattelites, and confirm with unit in plane.
  84. What is fault detection and exclusion?
    What WAAS does. Figures out that a satellite is bad and tunes it out of the equation
  85. LPV ?
    Sensitivities similar to ILS
  86. LNAV/VNAV ?
    Uses an internally generated glideslope based on WAAS. Flown to a DA. CAN BE FLOWN BY A WAAS GPS
  87. LP Approach ?
    Localizer performance without vertical guidance based on WAAS. Lateral sensitivity increases closer to the runway.
  88. LNAV approach ?
    Non-precision with lateral guidances. When not using WAAS, must check RAIM
  89. LNAV + V ?
    ADVISORY GLIDEPATH ONLY!!! NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH LNAV/VNAV or LPV
  90. Climb gradient conversion FPNM - FPM ?
    Take groundspeed x 60 and divide by FPNM
  91. Is there a minimum visibility requirement for IFR departure under part 91?
    No, but commercial standard for twins is 1 statute mile
  92. what is the 123 rule for filing alternates?
    +/- 1 hour from eta ceiling must be 2,000' and visibility 3 miles
  93. Load factor with angle of attack/lift ?
    if you double the lift/angle of attack, you double the load factor
  94. Stall speed in a 60 degree bank ?
    doubled
Author
dameng
ID
345218
Card Set
PA-44 Seminole MEL IFR
Description
PA-44 Seminole MEL IFR
Updated