MEL PA-44 Seminole

  1. What is a Critical Engine
    This engine would most adversely affect the performance of the airplane if it were to fail.
  2. Vmc
    minimum controllable airspeed, minimum speed at which the aircraft is directionally controllable
    Critical Engine Failed/Windmilling, Operating Engine Takeoff Power, Most Unfavorable Weight, Bank less than 5 degrees, Aft CG, Takeoff Configuration, Sea level conditions, Ground Effect, Gear Up.
  4. Critical Engine Failed Factors Affecting Airplane
    Torque, P-Factor, Accelerated Slipstream, Spiraling Slipstream.
  5. Critical Engine Failed Torque Factor
    Due to the direction of rotation of the props a yawing tendency occurs when the left engine fails, making it the critical engine.
  6. Critical Engine Failed P-factor
    Operating right-hand engine will produce a more severe yaw towards the dead engine due to the direction of rotation of the props. More "bite" from downward blade which is further from the center of the aircraft.
  7. Critical Engine Accelerated Slip Stream
    Due to accelerated air over the wing it causes greater lift and a rolling tendency.
  8. Critical Engine Spiraling Slipstream
    Left Engine Critical, The airflow from the left engine is moving around the aircraft and pushing on the rudder causing a yaw to the left. Right engine has no effect.
  9. Most Unfavorable Weight Factor
    Light is unfavorable. An increase in weight causes Vmc to decrease because of the greater horizontal component of lift. With a greater horizontal component of lift (max 5 degrees) less rudder is required thus decreasing Vmc.
  10. Critical Engine Factor Bank up to 5 Degrees
    1 degree of bank changes Vmc 3 knots, bank toward good engine decreases Vmc.
  11. Aft CG Factor
    A longer arm means more effective rudder and a lower Vmc, but a shorter arm means rudder is less effective and increases vmc.
  12. Sea Level Conditions Factor
    As we climb, pressure decreases. Power also decreases with altitude causing less of a yaw and less rudder required. Sea level conditions increases vmc.
  13. Servo or Anti-servo tab
    Anti-servo tab used for trimming and returning the flight control to a neutral point.
  14. Flaps and configuration
    Manual and spring loaded. 0, 10, 25 and 40 degrees
  15. Flap Types
    Plain, SLotted, Split, Fowler
  16. Purpose of Leading Edge Devices
    Allow aircraft to operate at a higher AoA. Allow aircraft to fly at lower speeds as well as have shorter takeoff and landing distances.
  17. Leading Edge Device Types
    Fixed Slot, Moveable Slot, Leading Edge Flap, Leading Edge Cuff
  18. Spoilers
    Reduce lift and increase drag. Often used for roll control and they are deployed at the same time allowing the aircraft to descend without gaining speed.
  19. Powerplant-Engine
    2 Lycoming O-360 A1H6, 4-cylinder, direct drive, horizontally opposed, 180hp at 2700rpm at sea level standard day. Air and oil cooled.
  20. Prop
    Hartzell 2-blade, constant speed, conrollable pitch and feathering. Asymmetrical thrust eliminated due to counter-rotating engines.
  21. What is a constant speed prop?
    Prop maintaims the RPM selected by the prop control lever regardless of the pitch or throttle position.
  22. Pitch of Prop is controlled by what?
    Oil and Nitrogen pressure.
  23. Default position of prop if oil lost
  24. Unfeathering Accumulator
    Stores oil pressure, allows prop to unfeather without oil pressure while engine is starting.
  25. Landing Gear
    Hydraulically operated, fully retractable, tricycle.
  26. Landing Gear Down
    downlock hooks engage, springs maintain force until released by hydraulic pressure.
  27. Landing Gear Annuciator Lights
    Red GEAR UNSAFE, gear is neither in the full up or full down position.
  28. Gear Warning horn activates when:
    Gear is not down and, 1. MP is below 14 inches. 2. The gear selector is in the UP position on the ground. 3. Gear selector is UP and flaps are extended to 25 or 40 degrees.
  29. Nose Gear steering Limits
    30 degree arc either side of center.
  30. Brake System
    Two single disc, double puck brake assemblies, one on each main gear.
  31. Fuel System
    Two 55 gallon tanks, 1 gallon unusable each tank
  32. Alternators
    2 belt driven 14 volt 70amps.
  33. Battery
    35amp hour, 12volt.
  34. Electrical Busses
    6 buses. Main, Nonessential, Tie, Avionics 1&2, and Battery.
  35. Non-Essential Bus
    Fed from tie bus. Standby Lights, recog lights, cabin heater, cabin vent, and blower.
  36. Avionics 1&2 Bus
    Bus 1 has Nav1, Comm1, Transponder, Pitch Trim, compass, and audio select. Bus 2 has comm2, nav2, adf, and marker beacons.
  37. Tie Bus
    distributes power to the other systems through breakers.
  38. Combustion Heater fuel usage
    Uses 1/2 gallon and hour from left tank
  39. CG Effects Forward
    Requires more taildown force. Requires more lift. Faster TAS required for takeoff and landing, longer takeoff and landing,higher stall speed, slower cruising speed, less controllable but greater positive static stability.
  40. CG Effects Aft
    Requires less taildown force, Slower TAS for takeoff and landing, Shorter Landing and takeoff distance, lower stalling speed due to lower AOA, higher cruise speed, Increased endurance and range, Less positive static stability but more controllable.
  41. Category, Class and Type Aircraft
    Airplane,Multi-Engine Land, no type.
  42. What is required for the type rating requirement?
    greater than 12,500lbs, turbojet, or anything the administrator deems should get a type certificate.
  43. Category, Class and Type for a pilot
    Airplane, Multi-engine land,Instrument.
  44. Vso
  45. Vs1
  46. Vmca
  47. Vx
  48. Vsse
  49. Vr
  50. Vxse
  51. Vyse
  52. Vy
  53. Vlo Retracting
  54. Vlo extending
  55. Vle
  56. Vfe
  57. Va
  58. Vno
  59. Vne
  60. Max Ramp Weight
  61. Max Takeoff Weight
  62. Max Landing Weight
Card Set
MEL PA-44 Seminole
MEL PA-44 Seminole