1. what are the 3 functions of the respiratory system?
    • Extract o2 from the atmosphere and transfer it to the blood 
    • excrete water vapour and co2 
    • ventilate the lungs
  2. What is the components of inspired air?
    • o2 - 21%
    • nitrogen- 78%
    • co2- 0.04%
    • water vapour (variable)
  3. what are the components of expired air?
    • o2- 16% 
    • nitrogen- 78% 
    • co2- 4%
    • water vapour (to saturation)
  4. how many sinuses are there within the skull?
  5. what are the 3 functions of the nose?
    • Warming the air we breathe in
    • filtering and cleaning of air 
    • humidification
  6. How many tonsils are there?
  7. what are the tonsils role?
    help in immune response
  8. what are the 3 parts of the pharynx?
    • Nasopharynx 
    • oropharynx 
    • laryngopharynx
  9. What are the 3 functions of the pharynx?
    • passageway for air and food 
    • resonating chamber for speech sounds 
    • houses tonsils
  10. How long is the pharynx?
    12-14 cm
  11. Where does the pharynx extend down to?
    cricoid cartilage of the larynx
  12. What is the pharynx lined with and what is it composed of?
    • mucous membrane 
    • skeletal muscle
  13. where does the nasopharynx lie?
    behind nasal cavity and is superior to the soft palate
  14. what does the nasopharynx contain?
    orifices of auditory tubes that open into the middle ear
  15. Where does the oropharynx extend?
    from the level of the soft palate to level of hyoid bone
  16. what two systems cross over at the oropharynx?
    respiratory and digestive
  17. Where does the laryngopharynx start?
    level of the hyoid bone
  18. what does the larynx connect?
    laryngopharynx with trachea
  19. Where does the larynx lie?
    • in midline of the neck 
    • anterior to the C3 through to C6
  20. What are the 3 single cartilages in the larynx?
    • thyroid 
    • epiglottis 
    • cricoid
  21. what is the paired cartilage in the larynx?
  22. what are the 5 functions of the larynx?
    • production of sound 
    • speech 
    • protection of the lower respiratory tract during swallowing 
    • provides a passageway for air from the pharynx to the trachea 
    • continues the process of humidifying, filtering and warming inspired air
  23. what is the epiglottis and where is it attached?
    • elastic cartilage attached to anterior rim of thyroid 
    • leaf shaped, moves up and down like a trap door.
  24. What is the thyroid cartilage?
    • forms anterior wall of the larynx 
    • connected to hyoid bone by thyrohyoid membrane
  25. what happens if food or fluid get past the epiglottis and into the trachea?
    cough reflex which gets rid of the food or fluid from the respiratory tract.
  26. what is the space between the vocal cords called?
  27. What is the structure of the trachea?
    16-20 incomplete C shaped rings
  28. Where does the trachea extend down to?
    larynx to T5
  29. How long is the trachea?
    about 10-11 cm
  30. What is the outer layer of the trachea composed of?
    fibrous and elastic tissue
  31. What is the middle layer of the trachea composed of?
    cartilage and smooth muscle
  32. What is the inner layer of the trachea lined with?
    ciliated columnar epithelium containing goblet cells
  33. What do the C shaped rings provide?
    semi ridged support to stop the trachea collapsing with the pressure changes
  34. Where does the trachea terminate?
    Carina at T5
  35. What happens to the trachea at Carina?
    bificates into R and L bronchus
  36. What are the 4 functions of the trachea?
    • Support and patency 
    • mucociliary escalator 
    • cough reflex 
    • warming, humidifying and filtering air
  37. What is the difference between the R and L bronchus?
    R primary is more vertical/ shorter & wider than the L
  38. Which bronchus is an aspirated object more likely to go down?
    Right primary bronchus
  39. What happens to the primary bronchus when entering the lungs?
    primary divide into the secondary (lobar) bronchi
  40. what do the bronchi progressively subdivide into?
    secondary bronchi- tertiary bronchi- bronchioles- terminal bronchioles
  41. what are the wider passages of the bronchi called?
    conducting airways (walls too thick for gas exchange)
  42. what is the extensive branching of the bronchis from the trachea commonly known as?
    the bronchial tree
  43. As the bronchi divide what are the structural changes to the cartilage?
    • Larger airways have rigid cartilage.
    • No cartilage at bronchiolar level- would prevent gas exchange
  44. As the bronchi divide, what are the structural changes to the smooth muscle?
    • replaces cartilage in smaller airways 
    • allows airway diameter to increase/decrease
  45. As the bronchi divide, what are the structural changes to the epithelial lining?
    • Ciliated epithelium is gradually replaced with non- ciliated epithelium 
    • goblet cells disappear
  46. Once inside the lobes of the lungs, what o the bronchi progressively sub divide into?
  47. What do the bronchioles  sub divide into?
    • Terminal bronchioles
    • respiratory bronchioles 
    • alveolar ducts 
    • alveoli
  48. Where are the lungs situated?
    • Either side of the mediastinum 
    • within the thoracic cavity
  49. How many lobes does the right lung have?
  50. How many lobes does the left lung have?
  51. What is the lung described to have?
    • apex
    • base
    • costal surface
    • medial surface
  52. Where is the hilum on the lungs?
    medial surface
  53. What are the lungs & interior of thoracic cavity lined by?
    two layers of serous membrane- the pleura
  54. What is the inside layer of the thoracic cage called?
    Parietal pleura
  55. What is the layer that covers the lungs called?
    visceral pleura
  56. What is the space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura called?
    pleural space
  57. What is the pleura?
    Serous membrane which surrounds each lung
  58. What separates the visceral and parietal pleura?
    serous fluid
  59. What pleura is attached to the lung?
    visceral pleura
  60. What lines the wall of the thoracic cavity?
    parietal pleura
  61. What does the serous fluid in between the parietal and visceral pleura do?
    • reduces friction 
    • allows them to slide easily over one and other during breathing
  62. What are the two circulation systems in the lungs?
    pulmonary and systemic
  63. What is pulmonary circulation?
    process of deoxygenated blood being sent to the lungs to get oxygen via the pulmonary trunk
  64. What is ventilation?
    Gases are exchanged between the atmosphere & the alveolus
  65. The pressure inside the alveoli with respect to the atmosphere is changed by what?
    changes in the size of the lungs
  66. what is the diaphragm?
    sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavities
  67. What shape is it when it is relaxed?
    dome shaped
  68. diaphragmatic activity is responsible for what percentage of air entry?
  69. What direction do the intercostal muscles pull the rib cage in inspiration?
    upwards and outwards
  70. Where does the gas exchange take place in the lungs?
    • alveoli 
    • walls of the alveolar ducts
  71. What is the anatomical dead space?
    • volume of air that does not take part in gas exchange
    • 150 ml
  72. What is tidal volume?
    • the amount of air exchanged with each breath
    • approx 500mls
  73. How do you work out minute volume?
    tidal volume x breathing rate per minute

    500mls x 15 bpm = 7.5L
  74. What is partial pressure?
    The pressure of a specific gas in a mixture
  75. Where do gases move to?
    from a high pressure to low pressure
  76. What is diffusion?
    a movement of a solute from a high concentration to a low concentration through a semi permeable membrane
  77. What is external respiration?
    exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood in the alveolar capillaries
  78. What is internal respiration?
    exchange of gases between blood in the capillaries and the body cells.
  79. Where does the voluntary control of respiration originate?
    cerebral cortex
  80. Where does the autonomic nervous control of respiration originate?
    • the respiratory centre
    • group of nerves in the medulla
  81. What is the chemical control of respiration?
  82. What do chemoreceptors detect?
    changes in the partial pressures of o2 and co2 in the blood and CSF
  83. where are the central chemoreceptors located?
    • in the respiratory centre
    • also respond to changes in pH
  84. Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors located?
    • in arch of aorta 
    • bifurcation of common carotids
  85. What is a normal breathing rare for an adult?
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