Hypertension drugs

  1. Where do Thiazides target?
    Distal convoluted tubules of the nephrons
  2. What is the mechanism of action of thiazides?
    • Blocks Na+ Cl- transporter
    • Prevents reuptake of Na and water – leads to decrease in intravascular fluid volume
  3. What is a prototype of thiazides?
  4. What some adverse effects with thiazides?
    • Hypokalemia
    • Glucose intolerance
    • Hyperlipidemia
    • Hyperuricemia
  5. What is the rout of administration for thiazides?
  6. True/False: thiazides are the first line hypertension medication for African Americans
  7. What’s an agent of ACE inhibitor?
  8. What is the mechanism of action for ACE inhibitors?
    Blocks ACE and thereby decreases SVR (preventing vasoconstriction)
  9. What is a common name stem for ACE inhibitors?
  10. What are some adverse effects for ACE inhibitors?
    • Angioedema
    • Dry cough
  11. Which drug interferes with ace inhibitors?
  12. What is the mechanism of action for angiotensin-receptor blockers?
    Blocks angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors
  13. What is the physiology effect of ARBs
    Decreases SVR
  14. Are cough and angioedema common side effects for ARBS?
  15. Are dry cough and angioedema common side effects for ACE inhibitors?
  16. Is it a good idea to combine ACE-I and ARBS together?
    Definitely no
  17. What is an agent for ARBs?
  18. True/False: African Americans don’t usually respond well to ARBs and ACE-I
  19. What are the fist line hypertensive treatments?
    • ACE-I
    • ARBS
    • Thiazides
    • Ca2+ channel blockers
  20. When is second line drugs used?
    Second line when first line therapy isnt enough
  21. How do second line drugs typically work?
    Decrease sympathetic tone- sympatholytics
  22. What are some second line antihypertensive drugs?
    • Clonidien- alpha 2 agonists
    • -Ozin -alpha 1 antagonist
    • Beta blockers
  23. What is the mechanism of action for clonidine?
    Partial agonist at alpha 2 adrenoceptors
  24. Wheat is the physiologic effect of clonidie?
    Decrease cardiac output and SVR
  25. What is the route of administration for clonidine?
    Oral and transdermal patch
  26. What are adverse effects for clonidine?
    Dry mouth and sedation
  27. What is the mechanism of action for alpha 1 blockers?
    Antagonize alpha 1 receptors in arteriole and venules
  28. What is a physiologic effect of alpha 1 blocker use?
    Decrease SVR
  29. What is a major adverse effect with alpha 1 blocker?
    Postural hypotension with first dose of drug
  30. Which drug is paired with alpha 1 blocker for best result?
    Diuretics or beta blockers
  31. Which’s is used for hypertensive emergency?
    IV nitroprusside
  32. What is the mechanism of action for hypertensive emergency?
    Stimulate gauntly Cyclase –> increase CGMP —> vasodilation
  33. What are some toxicity noted with nitroprusside use?
    • Hypotension (if given too much)
    • Cyanide toxicity (so best if combined with a cyanide binding drug to avoid)
  34. What is the mechanism of action for beta blockers?
    Blocks beta receptors thereby decreases CO and reduces SVR
  35. What are some therapeutic indications for beta blocker use?
    • Hypertension
    • Angina
    • Heart failure
  36. What are some therapeutic indications for calcium channel blocker?
    • Hypertension
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Angina
Card Set
Hypertension drugs
Cardiovascular Final