Where do Thiazides target?
Distal convoluted tubules of the nephrons
What is the mechanism of action of thiazides?
Blocks Na+ Cl- transporter
Prevents reuptake of Na and water – leads to decrease in intravascular fluid volume
What is a prototype of thiazides?
What some adverse effects with thiazides?
What is the rout of administration for thiazides?
True/False: thiazides are the first line hypertension medication for African Americans
What’s an agent of ACE inhibitor?
What is the mechanism of action for ACE inhibitors?
Blocks ACE and thereby decreases SVR (preventing vasoconstriction)
What is a common name stem for ACE inhibitors?
What are some adverse effects for ACE inhibitors?
Which drug interferes with ace inhibitors?
What is the mechanism of action for angiotensin-receptor blockers?
Blocks angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors
What is the physiology effect of ARBs
Are cough and angioedema common side effects for ARBS?
Are dry cough and angioedema common side effects for ACE inhibitors?
Is it a good idea to combine ACE-I and ARBS together?
What is an agent for ARBs?
True/False: African Americans don’t usually respond well to ARBs and ACE-I
What are the fist line hypertensive treatments?
Ca2+ channel blockers
When is second line drugs used?
Second line when first line therapy isnt enough
How do second line drugs typically work?
Decrease sympathetic tone- sympatholytics
What are some second line antihypertensive drugs?
Clonidien- alpha 2 agonists
-Ozin -alpha 1 antagonist
What is the mechanism of action for clonidine?
Partial agonist at alpha 2 adrenoceptors
Wheat is the physiologic effect of clonidie?
Decrease cardiac output and SVR
What is the route of administration for clonidine?
Oral and transdermal patch
What are adverse effects for clonidine?
Dry mouth and sedation
What is the mechanism of action for alpha 1 blockers?
Antagonize alpha 1 receptors in arteriole and venules
What is a physiologic effect of alpha 1 blocker use?
What is a major adverse effect with alpha 1 blocker?
Postural hypotension with first dose of drug
Which drug is paired with alpha 1 blocker for best result?
Diuretics or beta blockers
Which’s is used for hypertensive emergency?
What is the mechanism of action for hypertensive emergency?
Stimulate gauntly Cyclase –> increase CGMP —> vasodilation
What are some toxicity noted with nitroprusside use?
Hypotension (if given too much)
Cyanide toxicity (so best if combined with a cyanide binding drug to avoid)
What is the mechanism of action for beta blockers?
Blocks beta receptors thereby decreases CO and reduces SVR
What are some therapeutic indications for beta blocker use?
What are some therapeutic indications for calcium channel blocker?