Immunology 2

  1. acute inflammation
    the first immune response to something
  2. chemical mediators that initiate local inflammation
    • lipid messengers (Prostaglandins)
    • Chemical messengers (histamines and ROS)
  3. cardinal signals of inflammation
    • redness, swelling/edema, heat (Histamine)
    • pain (PGE and bradykinin)
  4. function of NSAIDS
    block synthesis of prostaglandins and relieve pain
  5. function antihistamines
    • block release of histamines and block histamine binding to receptors
    • relieve vascular effects
    • relieves itching and pain
  6. synonym for cytokines
  7. major systemic-effect cytokines
    IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha
  8. what cells produce cytokines and induce systemic responses
    monocytes and macrophages
  9. systemic responses of cytokines (due to inflamation)
    fever, acute phase proteins, leukocytes released from bone marrow
  10. what are acute phase proteins
    protective proteins released into blood
  11. examples of acute phase proteins
    • mannose-binding lectin
    • compliment components
  12. steps of immune cell recruitment
    • neutrophils then monocytes/macrophages are initially recruited
    • then lymphocytes
  13. what is extravasation?
    the movement of cells or fluid from within blood vessels to the surrounding tissues
  14. what is chemotaxis
    movement of a motile cell in a direction corresponding to a gradient of increasing or decreasing concentration of a particular substance
  15. function of lymphocytes at inflamed sites
    • kill infected cells
    • secrete antibodies
    • further activation of macrophages and neutrophils
    • promote cell types that repair tissues
  16. Resolution phase
    • clearance of stimulus
    • resolvins
    • macrophages eat apoptotic cells and produce anti-inflammatory¬†factors
  17. what is happening during chronic inflammation
    • ongoing stimulation of lymphocytes
    • ¬†tissue pathology
  18. local affects of inflammation
    • activation of mast cells
    • edema
    • phagocyte recruitment
  19. why does lymphocyte involvement take longer
    specialized lymphocytes are recruited from lymph nodes
  20. overall steps of inflamation
    • acute inflamation
    • local effects
    • systemic effects
    • lymphocyte recruitment
    • resoution or chronic inflammation
  21. function of platelets in inflammation due to cuts
    participates in blood clotting
  22. 3 routes of complement activation
    • alternative-microbial surface compounds trigger cleavage of complement protein
    • lectin-lectins bind to sugar on microbe and trigger complement activation
    • classical - antibodies bind to microbe surface and trigger complement activation
  23. 3 effector outcomes of complement activation
    • enhancement of inflammation by C3a fragments -activation of mast cells
    • opsonization
    • direct microbial lysis
  24. opsonization
    tagging of microbes by C3b fragments which are recognized by phagocyte cell receptors
  25. direct microbial lysis
    C3b activates other components (C5-C9) and for membrane attack complex MAC
  26. Anaphylatoxin
    • C3a
    • induce mast cell release of histamine
    • induce chemotaxis of neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages
  27. what receptor recognizes C3b fragments
    CR1 on macrophages (they eat up bacteria)
  28. two pathways that protect are cells from complement-mediated damage
    • secreted factors that circulate in the blood
    • membrane proteins on our own cells
    • both typically block C3b membrane association
Card Set
Immunology 2
lec 3 and 4