1. Chemokine
    any member of a large group of small proteins involved in guiding white blood cells to sites where their functions are needed.
  2. cytokine
    • proteins secreted by cells that act locally to change the behavior of neighboring cells.
    • they bind to specific receptors on their target cells
  3. cytolysis
    a dissolution or disruption of cells, especially by an external agent
  4. effector cell
    a terminally differentiated activated lymphocyte that can kill pathogens or remove them from the body
  5. immunological memory
    the capacity of the immune system to make quicker and stronger adaptive immune responses to successive encounters with an antigen
  6. primary response
    the adaptive immune response that follows a person's first exposure to an antigen
  7. secondary response
    • response provoked by secondary exposure to an antigen
    • starts sooner and builds more quickly
    • due to long-lived presence of memory B cells and T cells specific to an antigen
  8. how is the immune system like a beehive
    • its made up of individual cells that are highly motile
    • Immune organs are packed with immune cells
    • immune cells swarm to sites of challenge
  9. how do immune cells circulate
    blood, lymph, crawling
  10. immune tissues and organs
    bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen
  11. 4 main activities of immune system
    • sensing (with recptors)
    • intercellular communication¬†
    • executing responses (effector function)
    • memory (secondary responses)
  12. two methods of immune cell communication
    • cell contact
    • secreted molecules (cytokines and chemokines)
  13. immune effector responses
    • effector cytokines
    • phagocytosis
    • cytolysis
  14. 5 phases of immune responses
    • sensing a challenge
    • acute response in the immediate area
    • systemic response
    • recruitment of reinforcments
    • memory
  15. major biological functions of immune system
    • host defense
    • cleaning up undesirable cells and debris
    • wound healing
    • helping tissues grow and develop
    • managing our microbiota
  16. what biological system are immune cells a part of
  17. two main sub-groups of leukocytes
    lymphoid lineage and myeloid lineage
  18. 3 main cell types of lymphoid lineage
    • B-cells
    • T-cells
    • NK cells
  19. function of B-cells
    make antibodies
  20. function of T cells
    • helper T cells- promote functions of other cells
    • cytotoxic T cells - kill infected host cells
  21. function of NK cells
    kill infected host cells using other recognition strategies
  22. function of antibodies
    • cell surface receptors and also secreted proteins
    • bind antigens
    • perform multiple functions
  23. what do helper T cells influence
    B cells, macrophages, neutrophils, CTLs, and others
  24. 4 main cell-types of myeloid lineage
    • granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • monocytes and macrophages
    • dendritic cells
  25. function of granulocytes
    produce powerful inflammatory factors
  26. function of macrophages
    • phagocytosis and angiogenesis and fibrosis
    • produce cytokines and recruit other cells
  27. function of neutrophils
    • phagocytosis of microbes
    • netosis
  28. function of dendritic cells
    • sentinels-detect danger
    • initiate lymphocyte activation
    • direct the course of the immune response
  29. erythrocyte
    red blood cell
  30. what is a moncyte
    the precursor macrophage
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