Oscillations I Pt I

  1. Any motion that regularly repeats is referred to as _______ or ________ motion. Ideal type of oscillatory motion is referred to as _______ ________ _______ (___). This type of motion oscillates about an _________ position
    • periodic or harmonic motion
    • simple harmonic motion (SHM)
    • equilibrium
  2. Objects or systems of objects that undergo oscillatory motion are called ________.
    State 3 common examples: 
    This type of motion can be characterized by its _______ or _______
    • oscillators 
    • Common examples: 

    • 1) Object undergoing uniform circular motion
    • 2) A mass oscillating on a spring
    • 3) A pendulum 
    • period or frequency
  3. Define the equilibrium position.
    For a horizontal spring mass system, equilibrium is at the ______ ______ _____. For a vertical spring mass system, the weight of the mass will stretch the spring so equilibrium is no longer at its ______ length. The new equilibrium position is when the upward force of spring exactly balances the ______ of the mass
    • Equilibrium position: A point at which the net force on the particle is zero (ΣF = 0).
    • spring's natural length
    • resting length 
    • weight
  4. For a simple pendulum, the equilibrium position is in a _______ position. A reference configuration for x = ____ is at equilibrium position. This enables us to "ignore ______" for vertical spring mass systems
    • vertical 
    • "ignore gravity"
  5. Explain how the force exerted by the spring will act in each of these scenarios
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  6. Draw a period versus time graph for each of the following scenarios: 
    The oscillation takes place around an equilibrium position (Label the equilibrium position)
    The motion is periodic One cycle takes time T (Describe and Label the period)
    The oscillation is sinusoidal
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  7. Define Period
    Period (T): T, the time interval required for the particle to go through one full cycle or the time it takes the particle to make one revolution or a round trip
  8. Define Round trip 
    The _______ represents the number of seconds per cycle. 
    State the SI units for the period
    • Round trip: final position and velocity must be the same as the initial values. 
    • period
    • SI units: Seconds
  9. Define frequency (state SI units)
    • Frequency, (f): represents the number of oscillations that the particle undergoes per unit time interval or number of cycles per time
    • SI Units: s-1 or Hertz (Hz)
  10. State the formula and SI units for angular frequency 
    State the formula for frequency, and of period (2)
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  11. Consider an object attached to a spring. The force described by Hooke's law is the _____ force in _______ _______ law: 
    State 3 Formulas for Fnet and one for acceleration ax 
    Why can't kinematic equation be applied?
    • net force
    • Newton's Second law
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    • Because the acceleration is not constant
  12. Label the diagrams
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  13. If the block is released from some position x = A, the block continues to oscillate between -A and +A. These are ______ ______ of the motion. The force is ________. In the absence of friction, the motion will continue _______. Real systems are generally subject to _______ so they do not actually oscillate forever.
    • turning points
    • conservative
    • forever
    • friction
  14. Restate Hooke's Law by stating the formula for Fs and ax
    Then state the 2nd formula for angular frequency. 
    What is the 2nd derivative of x as it pertains to time (just another formula for acceleration when in SHM)
    Solve for x(t) and identify each component: 
    The phase of the motion is the quantity ________
    x(t) is periodic and its value is the same each time "ωt" increases by _____ radians
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  15. There are 4 constants present list and explain each 
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  16. Formula for angular frequency (2) 
    Formula for period (3)
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  17. The frequency and the period of any spring-mass system depend on which two factors?
    They do not depend on the parameters of _______ (give three examples).
    • Depends only on the mass of the particle and the force constant of the spring 
    • Does not depend on parameters of motion (amplitude, velocity, acceleration etc)
  18. If the frequency and period would depend on the amplitude, the motion is still _______ (explain), but NOT _______ _______ (state an example)
    The frequency is larger for _______ springs (______ values of k) and ________ with increasing mass of the particle
    • harmonic (meaning moving back and forth)
    • simple harmonic (ex: bouncing ball)
    • stiffer springs
    • large 
    • decreases
  19. Describing a sine/cosine wave 
    State what type of curves these are and 3 ways in which they differ 
    State the formulas for: 
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  20. Finding the phase constant 
    A and Φ0 are determined uniquely by the ______ and _______ of the particle at t = 0 (_____ condition)
    • position and velocity
    • (initial condition)
  21. Finding the phase constant 
    State the formulas for:
    at t = 0, x(t =0) **(2 formulas)
    at t = 0, v(t = 0) **(2 formulas)
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    • **pending edits on review of notes
  22. For simple harmonic motion, (d2x)/(dt2)= ______
    State the expression for the following: 
    Expression for displacement
    Expression for velocity
    Expression for acceleration
    Maximum displacement (also state where it occurs)
    Maximum speed (also state where it occurs)
    Maximum acceleration (also state where it occurs)
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    C. Time Period depends on k/m not amplitude so it'll be the same frequency, meaning the same period So as a result time does not change
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    check notes
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    Check notes
  26. Assume a spring mass system is moving on a frictionless surface, state the formula for:
    Kinetic energy (2).
    Elastic potential energy (2) 

    Because this is an isolated system, the total energy is _______. State the formula for energy with max potential energy (3-story) and the energy formula for max velocity
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    • constant 
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  27. Label the diagram 
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  28. State the formula for energy, then find the formula for velocity (2) (new one using an Energy Approach)
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  29. For each of the following oscillations, state the the expected Kinetic energy, Potential energy and Total energy
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    *Bonus: Restate the formulas for Velocity using the energy approach
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Card Set
Oscillations I Pt I
Oscillations I