A&P Chapter 1

  1. anatomy
    study of body structures
  2. physiology
    study of body function
  3. gross anatomy
    study of structures using eyes only (no microscope)
  4. microscopic anatomy
    study of structures using a microscope
  5. systemic anatomy
    study of structures using a systemic approach
  6. cytology
    study of the structure of cells
  7. histology
    study of the structure of tissues
  8. pathology
    study of the structure of disease
  9. pathophysiology
    study of the effect of disease on function
  10. levels of organization
    • atom
    • molecules - chemical
    • organelles
    • cells - cellular
    • tissues - histological
    • organs - organ
    • systems - systemic
    • organism - organismic
  11. structural plan of the body
    • vertebrate - have spine
    • bilateral symmetry - right side mirrors left
    • tube with a tube - skin, bones, muscles outer tube, organs inner tube
  12. superior
    upward toward head
  13. inferior
    downward toward feet
  14. cranial
    region of the head
  15. caudal
    region of the tail
  16. ventral
    front of the body
  17. dorsal
    back of the body
  18. anterior
    front of the body
  19. posterior
    back of the body
  20. ipsilateral
    same sides of the body
  21. contralateral
    opposite sides of the body
  22. superficial
    on the body surface
  23. deep
    deep inside the body
  24. proximal
    closest to the point of origin of a body structure
  25. distal
    furtherest from the point of origin of a body structure
  26. visceral
    covering a body organ or structure
  27. parietal
    lining a body cavity
  28. intermediate
    between 2 structures
  29. dorsal cavity
    • cranium
    • vertebrae
  30. ventral cavity
    • thoracic - upper chest
    • abdominopelvic - abdomen/pelvis
  31. diaphragm
    separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
  32. abdominopelvic cavity regions
    • R/L hypochondriac
    • R/L lumbar
    • R/L iliac

    • epigastric
    • umbilical
    • hypogastric
  33. right lumbar
    gallbladder, ascending colon
  34. right iliac (inguinal)
    appendix, cecum
  35. anatomical position
    stand, face observer, feet forward, arms at side, palms forward
  36. integumentary system
    • skin, hair, nails, glands
    • protection, body temp regulation, vitamin D production, perception
  37. skeletal system
    • bones, joints, cartilage
    • movement, support, blood cell production
  38. muscular system
    • all skeletal muscles
    • movement, heat production, posture
  39. nervous system
    • brain, spinal cords, eyes, ears, nerves
    • generation of impulses through the body that cause body responses
  40. digestive system
    • all digestive organs
    • breakdown and absorption of food
  41. urinary system
    • kidney, bladder, tubes
    • controls volume and composition of blood, produces urine as a by-product
  42. reproductive
    • male/female sex organs
    • production of sperm, eggs, hormones
  43. respiratory system
    • lungs and associated tubes
    • O2 in, CO2 out of the body
  44. cardiovascular system
    • heart, blood, vessels
    • pump blood that carries O2, CO2, nutrients, and waste
  45. lymphatic/immune system
    • spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes
    • removes bacteria, contains B and T cells
  46. endocrine system
    • all glands that produce hormones
    • control/regulate all body activities
  47. cephalic region
  48. axillary region
  49. brachial region
  50. inguinal region
  51. femoral region
  52. popliteal region
    behind knee
  53. orbital region
    eye socket
  54. acromial region
  55. calcaneal region
  56. body planes
    imaginary lines used in photos and medical procedures
  57. midsagittal plane
    divided into R/L through midline
  58. parasagittal plane
    divided into R/L not through midline
  59. horizontal plane
    cross-sectional plane
    transverse plane
    divided into top/bottom
  60. coronal plane
    frontal plane
    divided into front/back
  61. oblique plane
    divided into superior/inferior at an angle
  62. homeostasis
    • constant and stable maintenance of internal body conditions
    • maintained using feedback loops
  63. feedback loop
    cycle of events where status of a controlled condition is monitored
  64. control center
    brain - determines set point of a controlled condition (ex. HR 75)
  65. receptors
    nerve endings - monitor changes in controlled conditions and sends info to control center
  66. effectors
    nerves - receive info from control center and produce desired response
  67. negative feedback loop
    reverses what happens to the controlled condition
  68. positive feedback loop
    increases what happens to the controlled condition
Card Set
A&P Chapter 1
A&P Chapter 1 - Anatomy vs. Physiology