The Nervous System

  1. What does the cerebellum do?
    • coordinates posture, balance and movement 
    • sensory input comes from muscles, joints, eyes and ears
    • analyses, then works with motor in cerebrum to produce a centre response.
    • thought to be involved in learning and languages
  2. What does the hypothalamus control?
    • appetite and thirst 
    • body temp
    • emotion 
    • circadian rhythm 
    • sexual behavior
  3. What does the thalamus control?
    • recognition of pain
    • touch 
    • temp 
    • relays and redistributes from most of the brain to cerebral cortex
  4. What is the diencephalon?
    • Connects cerebrum with brain stem 
    • also has thalamus and hypothalamus
  5. What are the 5 different lobes?
    • Frontal- motor areas, motor speech, intellect, judgement behavior and prediction
    • Parietal- awareness of movement and position 
    • temporal- sound of interpretation, smells 
    • occipital- visual perception and association
  6. What is the inner part of the cerebrum made of?
    lots of nerve fibres- nerve tracts (white matter)
  7. How is the cerebral cortex designed?
    • Many ridges and folds
    • increases surface area 
    • increase number of cells in the brain
  8. What is the outer cerebrum called? and what is it composed of?
    • cerebral cortex 
    • composed of grey matter (nerve cell bodies)
  9. what is the cerebrum divided into? and what are they connected by?
    • 2 hemispheres R + L
    • connection (corpus callosum) formed by nerves
  10. What is the largest part of the brain?
  11. what are the 4 parts of the brain?
    • cerebrum 
    • diencephalon 
    • cerebellum 
    • brain stem
  12. how much glucose and o2 does the brain use?
    • 20% of o2
    • 25% of glucose
  13. what colour are the cell bodies and axons?
    • cell bodies- grey 
    • axon- white
  14. what do the nodes of ranvier assist in?
    rapid transmission of impulses
  15. what is myelin sheath formed by?
    concentric schwann cells
  16. what do axons and dendrites do?
    • axons carry impulses away from cell body
    • dendrites carry impulses towards cell body
  17. what is a neuron?
    • each cell has:
    • 1 cell body 
    • 1 axon
    • many dendrites
  18. what are the 2 nerve tissues?
    • neurone- generate and transmit impulses- bundles called nerve 
    • neuroglia- supporting structure
  19. what is the peripheral nervous system?
    • all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
    • sensory (afferent)- impulses from body to CNS 
    • Motor (efferent)- impulses from CNS to body
  20. what is the central nervous system?
    • brain + spinal cord 
    • 1) receives sensory information from nerves 
    • 2) analyses and processes the information 
    • 3) responds by sending a impulse via nerves to the body
  21. what are the two different types of system?
    • central nervous system (CNS)
    • peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  22. what is the purpose of the nervous system?
    • detects and responds to changes inside and outside the body 
    • helps coordinate and control vital aspects of body function 
    • maintains homeostasis
  23. what is the brain stem divided into?
    • mid brain 
    • pons varolli 
    • medulla oblongata
  24. What does the brain stem control?
    levels of consciousness
  25. What does the brain stem control?
    origins of cranial nerves
  26. What does the midbrain and the pons consist of?
    • nerve fibres 
    • acts as relays between different parts of the brain
  27. What are the clumps of nuclei in the Pons called?
    • pneumotaxic centre and apneustic centre 
    • work together with the respiratory centre in the medulla to control respiration
  28. what is the medulla continuous with?
    Spinal cord
  29. What 3 centres are in the medulla?
    • cardiovascular 
    • respiratory 
    • reflex
  30. What does the cardiovascular centre control?
    • BP 
    • rate & force of contraction
  31. What does the respiratory centre control?
    • rate & depth of respiration 
    • nerve impulses pass to phrenic and intercostal nerves
  32. What does the reflex centre control?
    • vomiting 
    • coughing 
    • sneezing 
    • all reflexes that are activated in the medulla in response to irritants
  33. What crosses over in the medulla before they get to the spinal cord?
    • motor nerves descending from the motor area of cerebrum.
    • left hemisphere controls right of the body 
    • Right hemisphere controls left side of the body
  34. Where do the cranial nerves originate?
    nuclei in the base of the brain
  35. how many pairs of nerves in make up the cranial nerves?
    12 pairs
  36. Which nerve leaves the head and neck?
    vagus nerve (the wanderer)
  37. What is the spinal cord continuous with?
  38. how long and what is the diameter of the little finger?
    • 45 cm 
    • little finger
  39. Where does the spinal cord extend down to?
  40. What is it called when the spinal cord stops being a solid structure and fans out? where does this happen?
    • cauda equina 
    • L1
  41. What are the three layers of the meninges?
    • Dura mater 
    • arachnoid mater 
    • pia mater
  42. Describe the dura mater
    • tough double layer lining the skull and the brain & cord 
    • potential space in between
  43. describe the arachnoid mater
    • thin
    • web like
  44. describe the pia mater
    • delicate layer 
    • adhering to the brain & cord with multiple blood vessels
  45. what are the three spaces called?
    • Subarachnoid 
    • epidural 
    • subdural
  46. How many ventricles are there in the brain?
    4 chambers
  47. What is CSF?
    cerebrospinal fluid
  48. what is secreted into each ventricle?
  49. What specialised cells secrete CSF and what rate is is secreted at?
    • choroid plexuses 
    • 0.5 ml per minute
  50. Where does the CSF flow from the ventricles?
    • subarachnoid space 
    • flows around subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and the spinal cord
  51. What is the CSF movement aided by?
    • pulsating blood vessels
    • posture 
    • respiration
  52. How is CSF absorbed?
    by projections from the arachnoid mater (arachnoid villi)
  53. What colour is CSF?
    clear and colourless
  54. What does CSF help maintain?
    a uniform pressure around central nervous system
  55. what does the CSF act as?
    cushion/shock absorber between brain and skull
  56. what does the CSF lubricate?
    brain and cord
  57. what does the CSF fluid exchanges?
    nutrients and waste
  58. What is the peripheral nervous system?
    all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
  59. how many pairs of nerves divide from the spinal cord to connect with the body
    31 pairs
  60. Where does the first pair of spinal nerves leave the vertebral canal?
    occipital bone and 1st cervical vertebra
  61. How many cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves are there?
    • 8 cervical
    • 12 thoracic 
    • 5 lumbar 
    • 5 sacral 
    • 1 coccygeal
  62. What does the Autonomic nervous system?
    subconsciously controls body functions and homeostasis
  63. What do the specific ANS nerves effect?
    • smooth muscle 
    • cardiac muscle 
    • glands
  64. What is the ANS divided into?
    • sympathetic nervous system
    • parasympathetic nervous system
  65. What does the sympathetic nervous system do?
    • deal with stress
    • excitement 
    • fight or flight
  66. What effects does the sympathetic nervous system have on the body?
    • stimulates cardiac activity 
    • opens the airways 
    • dilates skeletal blood vessels 
    • reduces gastric activity
  67. What does the parasympathetic do?
    • general peacemaker 
    • rest and digest
  68. what effect does the parasympathetic nervous system have on the body?
    • stimulates digestion and absorption of food
    • slows down cardiac and respiratory activities
Card Set
The Nervous System
Nervous system