1. What are the functions of the integumentary system?
- -temp regulation
- -protection of underlying tissues
- -retardation of water loss
- -housing sensory receptors
- -synthesizing certain chemicals
- -excreting waste
2. What types of tissue make up the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers?
Epidermis - stratified squamous epithelium
Dermis - Dense connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers
Subcutaneous - loose connective tissue and insulating Adipose tissue
3. What are the layers of the epidermis?
Stratum basale - Cell mitosis (function)
Stratum spinosum - Keratinization begins here
Stratum granulosum - Continued production of keratin and waterproofing lipids
Stratum lucidum - occurs mainly in the palms and soles, fingerprints occur here
Stratum corneum - prevents water loss from skin
4. What is keratin, how was it formed, and what is its function?
- A fibrous protein, that is created by keratinocytes, which holds epithelial cells together to form a barrier; and it forms outer most layer of our skin that protects us from the environment
5. What is melanin, which cell produces it, what are the two main types of melanin and what is its basic function?
- A pigment produced by melanocytes; eumelanin and pheomelanin are the 2 types, and it’s function is to protect deeper cells from the suns uv light.
6. What are the major determinant of skin color?
Melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin
7. What are the dermal papillae?
- Finger like projections in the superior dermis layer
8. List some of the accessory structures found within the Dermis
- - Hair follicle
- - Nerve and sensory fibers
- - Sweat and sebaceous glands
9. Describe the three most common types of skin cancer
- - Basal cell carcinoma
- - Squamous cell carcinoma
- - malignant melanoma
10. Describe how hair grows
- individual hairs develop from cells at the base of the hair follicle which contain the hair root
- as new cells are formed, old cells are pushed outward and become keratinized, and die forming the hair shaft
11. What determines hair color?
- Genetics; melanin from melanocytes
12. What is the function of the arrector pili muscle?
- To erect the hair follicle in order to generate heat (It is called goose bumps when this happens)
13. What are the types of skin/cutaneous glands?
- - Sebaceous
- - Sweat (eccrine, apocrine)
14. What is the difference between eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and the type of sweat they produce?
- eccrine open via a duct to a pore on the skin surface, while apocrine empties into a hair follicle
- Eccrine sweat consists of mostly water, salt, vitamin c, and metabolic waste; while apocrine also has added proteins and fatty acids
15. Describe how skin is involved in temperature regulation
- (Heat loss) sweating to cool the body, increased blood flow to superficial capillaries to allow heat to radiate out
- (Heat retention) constrict capillaries to reduce heat loss, piloerection (goosebumps)
16. Describe the 4 symptoms of inflammation and their basic cause
- - Redness (vasodilation, more blood in the area)
- - Heat (large amount of blood accumulating in area and as a by-product of increased metabolic activity in tissue)
- - Swelling (increased blood vessels permeability and fluids leaving blood and go into tissue spaces called edema
- - Pain (injury to neurons; increased pressure from edema)
17. Describe the stages of wound healing/tissue repair
- Blood vessels break
- - introduce clotting proteins
- - a clot walls off the injured area
- - scab forms
- Formulation of granulation tissue by fibroblasts
- - growth of new capillaries
- - rebuild collagen fibers
- Regeneration of surface epithelium
- -scab detaches
- -scar (elevation in normal epidermal surface from extensive collagen fibers below it)
18. Describe first, second, and third degree burns, include what layers of the skin are involved
- 1st degree burn only damages the epidermis and causes redness and swelling
-2nd degree burn damages the epidermis and the upper dermis. It causes redness with blisters.
3rd degree burn damages entire skin layer even nerves. It causes skin to look gray/white or black