Anatomy Intro

  1. 1. Define anatomy and physiology
    Anatomy- the study of the body and its parts

    Physiology- the study of how the body and its parts function or work
  2. 2. Name and describe the 10 characteristics of life
    Movement- gross or internal

    Responsiveness- reaction to internal or external changes

    Growth- the increase in size without changing shape

    Respiration- use of oxygen; removal of co2

    Reproduction- create offspring

    Digestion- to break down food

    Absorption- movement of substances through membranes and into fluids

    Circulation- movement of fluids within the body

    Assimilation- changing nutrients into chemically different forms

    Excretion- removal of metabolic waste
  3. 3. Name and describe the nine levels of structural organization in order from smallest to largest
    • -atom
    • -molecule
    • -macromolecule
    • -organelle
    • -cell
    • -tissue
    • -organ
    • -organ system
    • -organism
  4. 4. Define metabolism
    The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life
  5. 5. Name the five requirements of organisms
    • -nutrients
    • -oxygen
    • -water
    • -stable body temperature 98.6 F/37 C
    • -appropriate atmospheric pressure
  6. 6. Define homeostasis
    Maintaining a stable internal environment
  7. 7. Briefly explain negative feedback and positive feedback mechanisms
    Negative feedback- returns the body towards set point

    Positive- increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther away from set point
  8. 8. Define the terms axial and appendicular
    • Axial- head, neck, trunk
    • Appendicular- upper and lower limbs
  9. 9. Name the major body cavities and name the major organs found within each of those cavities
    • Cranial- brain
    • Vertebral- spinal cord
    • Thoracic- heart, lungs
    • Abdominopelvic- stomach, intestines, bladder
    • Diaphragm- separates the thoracic and abdominal cavity
  10. 10. Name of the thoracic and abdominopelvic membranes and define the terms visceral and parietal
    • -left and right visceral/parietal pleura
    • -visceral/parietal pericardium
    • -visceral/parietal peritoneum

    Visceral- the membrane that surrounds the organ

    Parietal- the membrane that lines the cavity wall
  11. 11. Give a brief description of each of the organ systems by naming its major organs and functions
    • 1. Integumentary- (skin) to regulate body temp., protect underlying tissue, excrete waste
    • 2. Skeletal (bones) support and protect organs
    • 3. Muscular (muscles) produces movement
    • 4. Nervous- (brain) activates muscles and glands
    • 5. Endocrine (testis) regulates hormones
    • 6. Cardiovascular (heart) pump blood
    • 7. Lymphatic (lymph nodes) cleanse blood
    • 8. Respiratory (lungs) use oxygen and remove carbon dioxide
    • 9. Digestive (stomach) break down food
    • 10. Urinary (bladder) eliminates nitrogenous waste
    • 11. Reproductive (uterus) produce offspring
  12. 12. Define the following terms:

    A. Superior
    B. Inferior
    C. Proximal
    D. Distal
    E. Anterior
    F. Posterior
    G. Medial
    H. Lateral
    I. Deep
    J. Bilateral
    K. Ipsilateral
    L. Contralateral
    M. Superficial
    N. Sagittal plane
    O. Frontal/coronal plane
    P. Transverse plane
    • A. Above; in relation to another body part
    • B. Below; in relation to another body part
    • C. Closer to the originating point of attachment
    • D. Further from the originating point of attachment
    • E. At or near the front of the body
    • F. At or near the rear of the body
    • G. Closer to midline of the body
    • H. Farther from midline of the body
    • I. Farther from surface of the body
    • J. On both sides of the body
    • K. On the same side of the body
    • L. On opposite sides of the body
    • M. Toward the surface of the body
    • N. Divides the body in left and right portions
    • O. Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
    • P. Divides the body into superior and inferior positions
  13. 13. Name and describe the location of the nine abdominal regions. A drawing is acceptable.
    Across by row starting with the top left in anatomical position:

    -right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac

    -right lateral, umbilical, left lateral

    -right inguinal, pubic, left inguinal
Card Set
Anatomy Intro
general anatomy terms, chapter1