Urinary

  1. What components make up the urinary system?
    Kidneys x 2.

    Ureters x 2

    Urinary bladder

    Urethra
  2. What are the functions of the urinary system?
    Formation of urine

    Excretion of waste

    Maintains water, electrolyte and acid-base balance

    Regulates red-blood-cell production

    Regulates BP
  3. The kidneys receive what % of the cardiac output?
    20%
  4. Blood enters and exits the kidney via what blood vessels?
    Renal artery enters the kidney, and there is a capillary network called the glomerulus
  5. What is the name of the capillary network within the kidneys?
    Glomerulus
  6. The kidneys are found in what cavity?
    Abdominal
  7. The kidneys extend from what level to what level?
    T12 down to L3
  8. What shape are the kidneys?
    Bean
  9. What are the 3 layers of the kidney?
    Capsule – the fibrous outer layer.

    Cortex – the middle layer.

    Medulla – the inner layer containing nephrons
  10. How many nephrons does each kidney have?
    1-2 million
  11. How long is the tube of each nephron?
    3cm long
  12. What causes water and small molecules to pass from the blood into the filtrate within the nephron?
    Osmosis
  13. What gets reabsorbed back into the blood? This process is called what?
    Selective reabsorption – allows some water, electrolytes, nutrients to be reabsorbed
  14. How many processes does the nephron have and what are they?
    3.  

    Filtrationn.

    Selective reabsorption.

    Tubular secretion
  15. What happens to waste that doesn't get filtered out through the glomerulus?
    It gets cleared by secretions from peritubular capillaries, in a process called tubular secretion
  16. What transports urine from the kidneys to the bladder and how?
    Ureters, via peristalsis.
  17. How long and how wide are the ureters?
    25-30cm long

    3mm diameter
  18. How many layers make up the ureters?
    3. Outer fibrous layer, a middle muscular layer and an inner mucosa of transitional epithlium
  19. The bladder lies in what cavity?
    Abdominal
  20. Where and when can the bladder move?
    When it fills and empties; it moves up into the abdominal cavity when full
  21. Total capacity of the bladder is what?
    600ml
  22. How many layers make up the bladder?
    3. Outer loose connective tissue; a middle layer of interlacing smooth muscle fibre; and an inner mucosa of transitional epithelium.
  23. How many openings are in the bladder? Explain...
    3. The upper two are openings of the ureters. The lower is the opening into the urethra
  24. Urine exits the bladder and the body via what canal?
    Urethra.
  25. How long is the male urethra?
    19=20cm
  26. How long is the female urethra?
    4cm
  27. What is micturition?
    Voiding of urine from the bladder
  28. How full is the bladder when it starts to send signals to the brain that it needs to have a wee (micturition)?
    300-400ml
  29. What sphincter autonomically relaxes, the internal or external sphincter?
    Internal
  30. What sphincter can override the urge to micturition, the internal or external sphincter?
    External
  31. How much does an adult urinate daily?
    1000-1500ml / day
  32. Urine is composed of what?
    96% water.

    2% urea

    2% salts, proteins, hormones
  33. How heavy is a kidney?
    150g
Author
jamiehaig
ID
344896
Card Set
Urinary
Description
Revision cards for urinary system
Updated