1. What components make up the urinary system?
    Kidneys x 2.

    Ureters x 2

    Urinary bladder

  2. What are the functions of the urinary system?
    Formation of urine

    Excretion of waste

    Maintains water, electrolyte and acid-base balance

    Regulates red-blood-cell production

    Regulates BP
  3. The kidneys receive what % of the cardiac output?
  4. Blood enters and exits the kidney via what blood vessels?
    Renal artery enters the kidney, and there is a capillary network called the glomerulus
  5. What is the name of the capillary network within the kidneys?
  6. The kidneys are found in what cavity?
  7. The kidneys extend from what level to what level?
    T12 down to L3
  8. What shape are the kidneys?
  9. What are the 3 layers of the kidney?
    Capsule – the fibrous outer layer.

    Cortex – the middle layer.

    Medulla – the inner layer containing nephrons
  10. How many nephrons does each kidney have?
    1-2 million
  11. How long is the tube of each nephron?
    3cm long
  12. What causes water and small molecules to pass from the blood into the filtrate within the nephron?
  13. What gets reabsorbed back into the blood? This process is called what?
    Selective reabsorption – allows some water, electrolytes, nutrients to be reabsorbed
  14. How many processes does the nephron have and what are they?


    Selective reabsorption.

    Tubular secretion
  15. What happens to waste that doesn't get filtered out through the glomerulus?
    It gets cleared by secretions from peritubular capillaries, in a process called tubular secretion
  16. What transports urine from the kidneys to the bladder and how?
    Ureters, via peristalsis.
  17. How long and how wide are the ureters?
    25-30cm long

    3mm diameter
  18. How many layers make up the ureters?
    3. Outer fibrous layer, a middle muscular layer and an inner mucosa of transitional epithlium
  19. The bladder lies in what cavity?
  20. Where and when can the bladder move?
    When it fills and empties; it moves up into the abdominal cavity when full
  21. Total capacity of the bladder is what?
  22. How many layers make up the bladder?
    3. Outer loose connective tissue; a middle layer of interlacing smooth muscle fibre; and an inner mucosa of transitional epithelium.
  23. How many openings are in the bladder? Explain...
    3. The upper two are openings of the ureters. The lower is the opening into the urethra
  24. Urine exits the bladder and the body via what canal?
  25. How long is the male urethra?
  26. How long is the female urethra?
  27. What is micturition?
    Voiding of urine from the bladder
  28. How full is the bladder when it starts to send signals to the brain that it needs to have a wee (micturition)?
  29. What sphincter autonomically relaxes, the internal or external sphincter?
  30. What sphincter can override the urge to micturition, the internal or external sphincter?
  31. How much does an adult urinate daily?
    1000-1500ml / day
  32. Urine is composed of what?
    96% water.

    2% urea

    2% salts, proteins, hormones
  33. How heavy is a kidney?
Card Set
Revision cards for urinary system