intro med bact

  1. what are the four major categories of microbes
    • viruses
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • parasites
  2. Are viruses cellular or non cellular?
    non cellular
  3. do viruses contain either or DNA/RNA or both
    either or DNA/RNA
  4. what occurs to the cell when virus infects host
    • destruction of host genome
    • integration of viral genome
  5. bacteria are unicellular or non cellular?
  6. bacteria produce sexually or asexually
  7. describe the role of pathogenic and non pathogenic bacteria
    • pathogenic: can cause disease by the toxic effects of their molecular products
    • non pathogenic: critical for human metabolism and health, part of the human normal flora/ microbiome
  8. are fungi eukaryotic or prokaryotic
  9. fungi reproduce asexually or sexually
  10. what are the two cell forms of fungi, name examples
    • unicellular: yeast
    • filamentous: mold
  11. what are the cell types of parasites
    • unicellular eukaryotes: "protozoa" like amoebae and giardia
    • multicellular eukaryotes: "animals" like tapeworms and pinworms
  12. what are the two types of infections
    • exogenous infections: disease arises when person is infected with microbes
    • endogenous infections: caused by normal microbiome organisms that progress to sterile/ inappropriate body sites where diseases ensue
  13. what are the examples of exogeneous infections
    • influenza virus:air borne disease
    • neisseria gonorrheae: STD
    • virbrio cholerae: food borne disease
  14. what are examples of endogeneous infections (3)
    • s. auereus: normal member of skin and upper respiratory tract microbiome. causes endocarditis or skin infections
    • e. coli: gut microbe. causes urinary tract infections or pink eye
    • clostridium difficile: normally in small numbers in gut microbiome. Can cause severe gut infection when normal bacterial community is disrupted through antibiotic treatment
  15. what are the types of infection controls (3)
    • sterilization: total destruction of all microbes. using heat/fire, autoclave, UV light
    • disinfection: removal/reduction of harmful microorgansims from inanimate surfaces
    • antiseptics: safe for use on tissue (iodine, alcohols). not transported by lymphatic system throughout the body (not antibiotics)
  16. what are the three levels of disinfection
    • high level: equipment involved in invasive medical procedures (endoscopes)
    • intermediate level: instruments where spore contamination is unlikely (specula, anesthesia masks)
    • low level: noncritical instruments (blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes)
  17. healthy microbiomes f(x)
    • contributes to metabolism of food products and medicines
    • line mucous membranes and aid in their functions
    • protects against infections with other microoganisms
    • stimulate and modulate the immune response
  18. factors that can affect the microbiome include
    • age
    • diet
    • hormonal state
    • health; infections, trauma, stress
    • personal hygiene
    • medical treatment: antibiotics, surgery, hospitalization - exposure to resistant microbes
  19. describe the unique microbiomes in the human body
    • every part of the human body has a unique microbiome
    • different numbers and types of bacteria live in different body sites
    • bacteria that normally live in one body site can cause disease when they enter a different body site
  20. what are the three normal microbiomes that when at other body sites cause disease
    • s. aureus: a normal part of the skin and upper respiratory tract can cause serious infections in lung, heart, and deeper dermal tissues
    • e. coli: normal part of the gut microbiome, can cause UTI/ pink eye
    • streptococcus pneumoniae: normal part of the throat microbiome, can cause infection in lungs when aspirated
  21. what organism that are normally found in small numbers may proliferate and cause disease
    clostridium difficile: normally found in the gut, but can cause antibiotic associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis after antibiotics deplete normal competitors
  22. what are the two pathogens that proliferate when normal microbiome is disrupted an cause gastroenteritis
    • yersinia enterocolitica
    • salmonella/shigella
  23. what are the pathogens that proliferate and cause lung and skin infections after antibiotic removes normal competitors
    • pseudomonas
    • acinetobacter
    • burkolheria
    • moraxella
    • staph aureus
  24. what is the treatment of healthy microbiome that can cure or prevent infections
    • probiotics
    • fecal transplant
    • end of antibiotic therapy
  25. what causes immunocompromization in hospitals
    • surgery, trauma
    • exposed to drug resistant bacteria
    • medical equipment
  26. what are the types of immunocompromised patients
    • elderly
    • HIV/AIDs
    • steroid treatment: reduces inflammation
    • pregnant women
    • cancer therapy
    • trauma victims
    • smokers
    • alcoholics/drug addicts
Card Set
intro med bact